Lecture 01 - BILD 3 Heather Henter FALL 2008 Lecture 01...

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BILD 3 // Heather Henter // FALL 2008 Lecture 01 // 09.25.08 Why study evolution? Why do we have wisdom teeth? Why do we have goose bumps? An example of evolution by natural selection is bacterial evolution of resistance to antibiotics. o Scottish doctor, Alexander Fleming, saw many young men die of infections. In the 1920 at St. Mary’s Hospital in London, he looks for antibacterial agents by working with Staphylococcus aureus , which is a pathogenic bacteria. Fleming went on vacation for a month and came back to discover that the plate was contaminated with fungus and the bacteria were inhibited. He called it Penicillin. o Howard Florey and his team at Oxford tried to produce penicillin. In 1941, he tested penicillin on the 1 st human, a policeman named Albert Alexander who scratched himself with a rose thorn and got an infection. He recovered with the penicillin but died when the supply of penicillin ran out. o In 1943, drug companies began to mass produced penicillin for war effort and millions of lives were saved. In the last 50 years, thanks to the power of antibiotics there was the golden age of medicine. o Today, many bacterial diseases are uncommon. The sexual revolution of the 1960s happened, in part, because venereal diseases could easily be treated with antibiotics. In 1943, it was the start of the antibiotic era and in 1947, the 1 st penicillin resistant pathogen was developed Staphylococcus aureus . o How do bacteria evolve resistance to antibiotics? Development of antibiotic resistance is evolution in action.
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1. Bacteria vary in their 2. Some bacteria have 3. Can pass that trait 4. Bacteria population response to drug. higher survival to offspring becomes resistant - evolved Development of bacteria resistant to antibiotics is an example of evolution by natural selection Evolution is not progression, not ladder-like, and most recently evolved are not most complex. Darwin evolution produces a tress of like with a common ancestor of all living species today.
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