FA2008 - BILD 3 - Lecture 02 (History of Evolutionary Thought - 01)

FA2008 - BILD 3 - Lecture 02 (History of Evolutionary Thought - 01)

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10/1/08 1 The History of Evolutionary Thinking Lecture 1 Reading - text Ch. 22 1. Next year (2009) is the 200 th anniversary of a. Darwin’s birth b. Mendel’s publication on inheritance in peas, established the idea of “genes” c. Publication of the Hardy-Weinberg principle d. Eruption of volcano that created Galapagos Islands e. Discovery of antibiotics Origin of Species by Natural Selection (1859) Charles Darwin (1809-1882) What does Origin… say? 1. All organisms evolved from common ancestor - descent with modification 2. Mechanism - natural selection - differential survival/reproduction (individuals with certain traits survive/reproduce more than individuals without those traits) Profoundly challenged prevailing world view What was that world view? Scientific thinking in Europe in the 1800s “Special Creation” view of life • All species were created by God • Species are immutable (incapable of change) (variation - imperfections) • Species created independently • Creation was recent
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10/1/08 2 How recent? How old is the Earth? 1664 Archbishop James Ussher - 5668 years. “Heaven and Earth, Centre and substance were made in the same instant of time and clouds full of water and man were created by the Trinity on the 26 of October 4004 BC at 9:00 in the morning.” 2. According to current scientific thinking, how old is the earth? a. 1.8 million years b. 65 million years c. 540 million years d. 4.6 billion years e. 6.5 billion years How did that thinking start to change? Darwin’s influences: Classification Linneaus Geology Hutton, Lyell Paleontology Cuvier Evolution Lamarck Economics Malthus Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Gave all species two-part (genus species) name Musca domestica , house fly Role of scientist was to better understand God’s plan CLASSIFICATION Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Gave all species two-part (genus species) name Classified organisms into hierarchical categories Role of scientist was to better understand God’s plan CLASSIFICATION
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10/1/08 3 Russian nesting dolls Phylum : Arthropoda Class : Insecta Order : Diptera Genus : Musca Species : domestica Hierarchical categories Musca domestica , house fly Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Created exhaustive classification of animals and plants in Systema Naturae Used hierarchical categories Groupings because of divine plan, not because of relatedness Role of scientist was to better understand God’s plan CLASSIFICATION Earth’s biota has changed *studied fossils - established the fact of extinction *recognized that sedimentary rock laid down in layers, older (deeper) rock layers contained organisms more dissimilar to present than younger rock layers Mechanism - Catastrophism - changes are due to catastrophes PALEONTOLOGY Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) Gradualism - big changes can occur through gradual processes Uniformitarianism – same geologic processes operated in past as operate today geologic observations - explained by processes we can see
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2009 for the course BILD 632282 taught by Professor Henter during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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FA2008 - BILD 3 - Lecture 02 (History of Evolutionary Thought - 01)

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