FA2008 - BILD 3 - Lecture 06 (Phylogenetic Trees - 01)

FA2008 - BILD 3 - Lecture 06 (Phylogenetic Trees - 01) -...

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10/16/08 1 Lecture 6 Phylogenetic trees Reading Ch 26 Overview I. What is a phylogeny? II. History III. How do we read trees? IV. How do we build trees? A. characters B. reasons for similarities 1. homology 2. homoplasy 3. shared & derived homologies C. tree building techniques 1. outgroup comparisons 2. parsimony 3. maximum likelihood V. Is there such a thing as a fish? VI. Why are phylogenies useful? VII. Molecular clocks I. Phylogeny = evolutionary history of a group of species Phylogenetic tree – picture of that evolutionary history *branching diagram *shows relationships among taxa *recency of common ancestor Phylogenetic trees - must be inferred Reconstructing the past we didn’t see Systematists - those who study the evolutionary relationships among organisms (systematics ) – Use all possible types of data (external and internal morphology (skeleton), behavior, cell structure, chromosome #, nucleotide sequences in DNA, etc.)
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10/16/08 2 II. History the classification of organisms – very old game Carolus Linneaus (1707-1778) Swedish botanist binomial naming system hierarchical categorization point - understand God’s plan Phylum : Arthropoda Class : Insecta Order : Diptera Genus : Musca Species : domestica Kings Pour Coffee On Fairy God- Sisters Darwin gave this system an explanation: hierarchical classification reflects historical events (descent from a common ancestor) Mammals - hairy because descended from hairy ancestor (1837) 1st -known sketch by Darwin of an phylogenetic tree For the most part - classification represents real history of evolution For the most part organisms that look more alike are more closely related But NOT always true - physical characters can be
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