Insect_Orders[1] - Insect Orders a. Apterygota (wingless)...

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Insect Orders a. Apterygota (wingless) – indirect sperm transfer so sperm can dry out or get eaten by predators i. Protura 1. Proturans 2. 1 st tail, long skinny, use front legs as antennae 3. 500 species ii. Collembola 1. Springtails 2. Indirect sperm transfer: dancing, fences, eating competition’s eggs 3. 6500 species 4. small, soft, elongate, globular bodies in both immature and adult stages, pop up and down, humid places, pond surface habitats 5. chewing mouthparts for consuming fungus and plants located in the head 6. furca: forked jumping organ under the abdomen iii. Diplura 1. Two-pronged bristletails, small, fragile 2. 500 species iv. Archaeognatha – flightless 1. Jumping brushtails 2. 350 species 3. large compound eyes 4. feed on litter, detritus, algae, mosses 5. seek shelter under rocks or bark 6. arched thorax to spring, ancient mouthpars, rocky habitats 7. molt during all stages, similar looking in immature and adult stages v. Zygantoma= Thysanura 1. Silverfish, flat 2. 400 species
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b. Hemimetobola (gradual development) - Paleoptera (wings are locked in place) – adaptations to Carboniferous Era i. Ephemeroptera 1. Mayflies 2. 2500 species 3. temperate habitat 4. adults have reduced mouthparts and do not feed, form mating swarms over water where female drops eggs or crawls underwater for oviposition, adults live for only a few hours 5. males have elongate forelegs used to grasp the female during the mating flight 6. nymphs are aquatic (gills) and prey on small living creatures ii. Odonata 1. Dragonflies and damselflies 2. 6500 species 3. males grasp females around the next and fly in tandem to perch for mating 4. eggs laid on water surface, sperm removal as competition 5. 100% predators: larvae are predatory on aquatic organisms while adults catch terrestrial prey, aggressive, aquatic habitat 6. excellent visual acuity (dragonflies) c. Neoptera (wings fold)- Orthopteroid i. Plecoptera 1. Stoneflies 2. 1200 species 3. ecological indicators of clean water, low tolerance for pollution 4. males sing by bumping bodies against plants 5. herbivores, detritovores and predators ii. Isoptera 1. Termites 2. Social colony, wood and soil habitats, architects 3. 2000 species
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4. some herbivores – eat wood – low in nitrogen iii. Blattodea 1. Cockroaches, social behavior 2. 4200 species iv. Mantodea 1. Mantids- large eyes with excellent acuity 2. 2000 species 3. Tympanal ears 4. 100% predators – patient, camoflague v. Grylloblattodea 1. Rock crawlers, ice bugs 2. 25 species 3. high altitude, cold climate, eat dead bugs on snow vi. Mantophasmatodea 1. Heal walkers 2. 20 species 3. predators that feed on dead animals in the sand vii. Phasmatodea 1. Stick insects 2. 2000 species 3. some herbivores 4. females throw eggs around viii. Embioptera 1. Webspinners, embiids 2. 2000 species 3. live in tropics, large colonies under bark ix. Orthoptera 1. Grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, katydids 2. 20000 species
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3. Acoustic communication for mating, bright colors
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Insect_Orders[1] - Insect Orders a. Apterygota (wingless)...

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