LECTURE-2_Chemical Concepts for Biology

LECTURE-2_Chemical Concepts for Biology - Biol 202...

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Biol. 202: Molecular & Cellular Biology Water, Acids, Bases, and Buffers Lecture #2 Some Basic Chemical Concepts for Studying  Biology Campbell and Reece Chapter 3; pp 47-57
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OBJECTIVES Describe why H 2 O is polar. Describe why solid H 2 O is less dense than liquid H 2 O. Define oxidation and give examples. Define reduction and give examples. Define and describe: Ionic bonds Polar covalent bonds Nonpolar covalent bonds
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OBJECTIVES Calculate the molecular weight of any given  molecule. Define a MOLE and know the relationship between  a MOLE and Avogadro’s number. Define and recognize an acid and a base. Know how buffers maintain a relative constant pH.
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Water is polar. Hydrogen bonds form between water molecules. δ - δ + δ + δ + δ - H H O
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Water is Polar Water is the universal solvent. The oxygen atom is electronegative and it attracts  electrons providing an asymmetric polarity to the water  molecule.  Weak electrical interaction forms a Hydrogen Bond  between water molecules.
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Unusual properties of Water Liquid water is more dense than solid water (Ice).   Therefore, ice floats. Water has a large capacity for absorbing heat.
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In ice, water molecules form a crystal lattice. In liquid water, no lattice forms, so liquid water is denser than ice.
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As a result, ice floats.
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Na+ Na+ Loss of electron Cation formation A sodium ion being formed The molecule that l oses e lectrons – is o xidized. So, sodium is oxidized to the sodium ion.
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