LECTURE-5a and b_Amino Acids and Proteins

LECTURE-5a and b_Amino Acids and Proteins - Macromolecules...

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Macromolecules Cont. Lecture #5 Campbell: 7 th  Edition  Chapter 5, pages 77- 86 Amino Acids and Proteins
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Lecture #4 - Objectives Describe the general structure of  amino acids. Recognize and name the amino  acids. Know which amino acids are  hydrophobic and hydrophilic.  List several functions of proteins.
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Lecture #4 - Objectives Describe the peptide bond. Show how amino acids are linked to form a  polypeptide. Discuss how proteins can vary in size and in  function. Define and describe primary, secondary, tertiary,  and quaternary structure of proteins. Know the types of bonding or forces that  contribute to each level of protein structure. Describe denaturation and renaturation of  Proteins
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Remember: Macromolecules are Polymers Polymer - A high molecular weight compound  consisting of long chains that may be open, closed,  linear, branched, or cross linked.   The chains are composed of repeating units, called  monomers, which may be identical or different. Polymerization - the repetitive reactions whereby the  repeating units of a polymer are linked together to  form long chains; the formation of a polymer.
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Amino Acids and Proteins Amino acids are the monomers which  are condensed to form the proteins  polymers. Proteins are formed from twenty  different amino acids.  It is the peptide bond that link the  amino acids in the formation of  proteins.
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Structure and Some Physical  Properties of the Amino Acids
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H 2 N Amino group C Side chain R H C O OH Carboxyl group Non-ionized form All amino acids have the same general structure.
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Amino Acids - 1 Amino acids are the monomers that are the  building blocks of proteins.  Amino acids have a central carbon bonded to  four groups, including a carboxyl group, and  amino group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable  R-group.   The differences in the R-groups give unique  physical and chemical properties to each amino  acid.
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H 3 N + Amino group C Side chain R H C O O - Carboxyl group Ionized form
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Amino Acids - 2 The carboxyl group is acidic.  When it  donates a proton, it becomes  negatively charged. The amino group is basic. When it  accepts a proton, it becomes  positively charged.
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CO 2 H CO 2 H H H H H NH 2 NH 2 Hands are chiral CO 2 H CO 2 H NH 2 NH 2 CH 3 CH 3 H H Alanine is chiral– these two forms cannot be superimposed Glycine is not chiral– these two forms can be superimposed Mirror
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The central carbon atom of all the amino  acids (except glycine) is asymmetric.  That  is, there are four different groups bound to  the central carbon atom.
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