LECTURE-6_Nucleic Acids

LECTURE-6_Nucleic Acids - Remember EXAM #1 is approaching -...

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Unformatted text preview: Remember EXAM #1 is approaching - rapidly. The molecule without the phosphate group is a nucleoside . The molecule with the phosphate group is a nucleotide . Molecules are often denoted as nucleoside mono, di, or triphosphates. Biol. 202: Molecular & Cellular Biology Macromolecules Lecture #6 Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA Campbell and Reece Chapter 5; pp 86 - 91 OBJECTIVES 1. Recognize the structures of the nucleotide monomers and name them. 2. Know the structural differences between RNA and DNA. 3. Understand Chargaffs Rules. 4. Describe the structure of DNA. 5. Describe how the structure of DNA is different from RNA. The Nucleic Acids - 1 Nucleotides have three components: (1) a nitrogenous (nitrogen containing) base (2) a pentose sugar (3) a phosphate Nucleotide monomers are the building blocks of nucleic acids. Nucleic Acids - 2 The nitrogenous bases are derivatives of two parent heterocyclic compounds: (1) pyrimidine (2) purine Heterocyclic Rings Sugars (review) Sugars are poly-hydroxy aldehydes or ketones. Among the most common in biology are the hexoses and pentoses: Glucose is a hexose containing 6 carbon atoms. Ribose is pentose containing 5 carbon atoms (RNA and DNA). Monosaccharides = one sugar unit. polysaccharides = many sugar units. RIBOSE RNA DNA Nucleic Acids - 4 Each nitrogenous base is covalently linked to the ribose sugar through a bond denoted as the N- -glycosyl bond. Nucleotide Structure N- -glycosyl bond Nucleotide Ribose Deoxyribose P O O O O Phosphate group O N 4 3 2 1 5 Nitrogenous base 5-carbon sugar O O H H H OH H H OH 5 OH 2 H H H OH OH H N O H N NH 2 Pyrimidines NH O H N O NH 2 N N N H N Cytosine (C) Adenine (A) Uracil (U) Purines Thymine (T) Guanine (G) H 3 C NH N H H N N NH 2 NH O N 3 4 1 2 3 1 4 5 O O Remember, RNA contains U, DNA contains T. The molecule without the phosphate group is...
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2009 for the course BIO 202 taught by Professor Dean during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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LECTURE-6_Nucleic Acids - Remember EXAM #1 is approaching -...

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