LECTURE-35_Control of Eukaryotic Gene Expression

LECTURE-35_Control of Eukaryotic Gene Expression - Control...

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Control of Eukaryotic Gene Expression Campbell and Reece (7 th  Edition) Chapter 19: Pages 359 - 383
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OBJECTIVES Describe the structure of chromatin. Describe the structure of the nucleosome. Recount the structure and function of the histone  proteins. Distinguish heterochromatin from euchromatin. Describe the chemical interaction between  histone proteins and DNA.
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OBJECTIVES Describe the influences of acetylation and  methylation on eukaryotic DNA transcription. Describe how eukaryotic genes are organized in  contrast to prokaryotic genes. List the post-transcriptional modifications during  eukaryotic mRNA processing. List the three types of protein motifs that bind  DNA. Describe alternative splicing and what is  accomplished by this process.
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OBJECTIVES Define and describe the role that transcription  factors have in the synthesis of RNA. Explain what p53 and retinoblastoma have in  common. Define: Protooncogene Oncogene Tumor suppresser 
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OBJECTIVES Explain why the p53 protein is often referred to  as the “guardian angel of the cell.” 
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Gene expression  is a highly specific  process in which a gene is switched on  initiating a series of events leading to the  synthesis of a specific protein.  This is true for prokaryotes and it is also  true for  eukaryotes. For eukaryotes the process is more  complex. Remember the problem!
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Each cell  in the human body (except for  mature red blood cells and platelets, which  do not contain a nucleus) contains a  complete copy of the human genome:  approximately 3.2 billion base pairs,  organized onto 23 pairs of chromosomes  (unpaired in gametes), with an estimated  30,000 genes. 
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However, only a small fraction of the genes  are expressed, or turned "on," in any  particular type of cell.  Cells look and act the way they do because of  the specific genes that they express and the  amounts of gene products produced. 
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“House keeping genes” are  those genes commonly  expressed in all cells ie,  mitochondrial proteins or actin.
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Different cells have different functions and  therefore, require different proteins. Take Home Lesson!
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Different genes are expressed during  cellular differentiation.
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Cell differentiation is an ongoing process  throughout life. During development cell differentiation is intense.
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Two D Gel Electrophoresis Each spot is a protein  and represents a gene  product.
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