Lecture 24 and 25 Mendel - Lecture 23 and 24 Mendelian...

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Lecture 23 and 24 Mendelian Inheritance Campbell, Chapter 14 pp 251-260 Learning Objectives   1. Define true breeding, hybridization, monohybrid cross, P1 generation, F1  generation, and F2 generation.  2. Relate Mendel's law of segregation to events in meiosis.  3. Be able to to predict the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of an F2  generation  from a monohybrid or dihybrid cross.  4. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: dominant and recessive;  heterozygous and homozygous; genotype and phenotype. Explain  the  molecular basis for each of  these descriptors. 5. Explain how a testcross can be used to determine if a dominant phenotype is  homozygous or heterozygous.  6. Define Mendel's law of independent assortment.  7. Use the rules of multiplication/addition to calculate the probability that a  particular  F2 individual will be have a particular phenotype or genotype (for  any number of  traits.   Book assignments: Chapter 14, 1-17
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Terms you should know Trait Hybridization P generation F1 generation F2 generation monohybrid cross dihybrid cross / trihybrid cross allele locus dominant allele recessive allele Mendel’s law of segregation Mendel’s law of independent assortment phenotype genotype homozygous heterozygous
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Why does it matter? Mickey Hayes and Fransie Geringer
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WHO IS GREGOR MENDEL In 1865, Gregor Mendel announced that he had worked out the rules of inheritance. Mendel is famous  today but was relatively unknown  outside Czechoslovakia in his  lifetime. He was the first scientist to  deduce clear and rational laws which  could explain the process of  inheritance. The rules which Mendel deduced from studies of peas are equally applicable  to human inheritance, so pay attention.
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The question that Mendel was trying to answer: What are the basic patterns in the transmission of traits from parent to  offspring? He wanted to test the hypotheses for inheritance that  predominated in 1865: Blending inheritance Inheritance of acquired characters  His experimental approach was to monitor and quantitate  the transmission of traits in the pea plant, Pisum sativum.
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His choice of a good experimental model system contributed to his success in solving the problem where others before him failed. Peas are a good experimental system because…. easy and inexpensive to cultivate. reproduce quickly. can be raised in a small space, in large numbers. amenable to genetic analyses.  come in many varieties.
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Stigma (receives pollen) SELF-POLLINATION Anthers (produce pollen grains, which contain male gametes) Ovules (produce female gametes) Self-pollination results in true breeding lines Another key to his success was that Mendel performed crosses between  true breeding  lines (i.e. self-pollinated  plants whose offspring are consistently of the same variety) of garden peas that differed in a single trait. 
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