Intro_to_carbonyl - Introduction to Carbonyl Compounds:...

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RH O RR O RO R O H O RC l O RN H 2 O O Aldehydes Ketones Esters Carboxylic Acids R O Acid Chloride Amides Anhydrides Introduction to Carbonyl Compounds: Aldehydes and Ketones Vanillin (-)-Carvone Spearmint HO OCH 3 O H O H 3 C O CH 3 (+)-Carvone Caraway Mirror Plane
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I. Structure of Carbonyl Compounds Alkene Ketone C=C bond length 1.33 Ǻ C=O bond length 1.22 Ǻ O RR O Symmetrical Alkenes have no dipole moment Carbonyl compounds have A large dipole moment The partial positive charge on the carbonyl carbon renders this position susceptible to nucleophilic attack R R R R R R CC R R R R CO R R
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I. Structure of Carbonyl Compounds Atomic Orbitals of Oxygen σ -Bonding MO π -Bonding MO Nonbonding Electrons ~75 Kcal ~90 Kcal R R 2 Uncombined Atomic Orbitals of Carbon O Nonbonding electrons are highest in energy electrophiles will react with oxygen lone pairs π∗ -MO σ∗ -MO R R
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I. Structure of Carbonyl Compounds R R R R R R Carbon
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Intro_to_carbonyl - Introduction to Carbonyl Compounds:...

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