Lecture 2 BIMM

Lecture 2 BIMM - Lecture 2 The great human diaspora and the...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–15. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Lecture 2 The great human diaspora and the domestication of plants and animals. How human adaptation to new environments (especially during the past 10,000 years) has inFuenced the frequency of various diseases.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Tracing human male ancestries using the Y chromosome. With only one Y chromosome per cell, there is no recombination, thus any allele/haplotype markers are passed unchanged from father to son
Background image of page 2
The human Y chromosome is gene poor compared to the X. It has a higher rate of mutation due its large proportion of (apparent) junk DNA, and so is useful for tracing lineages during the short time that modern humans have evolved.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
12_08.jpg Tracing maternal lineages remember, nuclear genes and mitochondrial genes are on different chromosomes in different organelles, and show different patterns of inheritance
Background image of page 4
The human mitochondrial genome, maternally inherited only, (human sperm cells contain no mitochondria). The mitochondrial genome (16 kilobases of DNA, 37 genes) suffers neutral and selected mutations at a modest rate that can be used to map maternal human lineages
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Y chromosome (male) lineage trees based on sequence changes in Y chromosomes ATGCATCCCG ATGCATCCC T ATGCATCCC A ATGCATCCC A plus other unique sequence polymorphisms for each lineage
Background image of page 6
Mitochondrial (female) lineages using evolutionary trees based on sequence changes
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
12_31_2.jpg Human population divergences, based principally on Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA sequence changes confidence values
Background image of page 8
12_31.jpg
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
The human diaspora, based on evidence from molecular evolution of DNA collected from "indigenous" populations
Background image of page 10
The geographical distributions of Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA poymorphisms are not identical - probably due to males moving less than females
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Other evidence for the modern human diaspora ~100,000 years of "looking for better real estate" 1. Human skeletal paleontology 2. Human tool evolution 3. Human language evolution e.g. the word for female sheep, from ewe to owis, sounds vaguely similar in most Indo-European languages, as do other words that were presumably extant in the Middle East about 4,000 to 6,000 years ago (a "control experiment" - more recently evolved words, e.g. gun and its equivalents are not similar in diverse languages)
Background image of page 12
Other evidence for African origins The geographical locations where early modern human (Homo sapiens) fossils have been found
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Human origins and human disease Health and disease in hunter gatherer societies: Death rates were relatively high, although maximal life span was about the same as in current industrial societies Main causes of death included: accident, food shortage, predation, homicide, parasitic disease, osteoarthritis, childbirth Many non-communicable diseases (cancer, obesity, diabetes, hypertension) were rare to non-existent. Hunter-gatherers typically lived in small bands, with irregular
Background image of page 14
Image of page 15
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 03/31/2009 for the course BIMM BIMM 110 taught by Professor Mcginnis during the Winter '09 term at UCSD.

Page1 / 40

Lecture 2 BIMM - Lecture 2 The great human diaspora and the...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 15. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online