Originally written by Chris Miller Updated by Tony Saavedra TRANSFORMATION BY FIRE: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION 1845- 1877 SUBUNIT 4.2: THE TRANSFORMING FIRE: THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865 THE NORTH VERSUS THE SOUTH: THE FURNACE OF CIVIL WAR 1860-1865 PART ONE: THE SECESSION CRISIS 1860-1861 PART TWO: NORTHERN ECONOMIC, MILITARY, POLITICAL, AND SOCIAL MOBILIZATION 1861- 1865 PART THREE: SOUTHERN ECONOMIC, MILITARY, POLITICAL, AND SOCIAL MOBILIZATION 1861- 1865 PART FOUR: CIVIL WAR STRATEGY AND DIPLOMACY 1861-1865 PART FIVE: MAJOR BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865PART ONE: THE SECESSION CRISIS 1860-18611. By the end of 1860, FOUR STRINGS that had once tied the Union together seemed to have snapped. STRING #1:The almost mythical veneration of the Constitution and its framers was no longer working together to unite the nation. Residents of the North and South—particularly after the controversial Dred Scott decision—now differed fundamentally over what the Constitution said and what the framers meant. STRING #2:The romantic vision of America’s great national destiny had ceased to be a unifying force. The two sections now defined that destiny in different and apparently irreconcilable terms. STRING #3:The stable two-party system had collapsed in the 1850s, to be replaced by a new one that accentuated rather than muted regional (sectional) controversy. STRING #4:Above all, the federal government was no longer the remote, unthreatening presence it once had been. The need to resolve the status of the territories had made it necessary for Washington, D.C. to deal with sectional issues in a direct and forceful way. CONCLUSION:Consequently, beginning in 1860, the divisive, sectional forces that had always existed within the United States were no longer counterbalanced by unifying forces. As a result, the Union began to dissolve. A. Following Lincoln’s election (a sectional victory) in November 1860, what state seceded first and why? By February 1861 what six additional states had seceded? Name the seceded government and its capital. How did the North respond? (1) Almost as soon as the news of Lincoln’s election reached the South, the militant leaders of the region—the champions of the new concept “Southern Nationalism,” men known both to their contemporaries and history as the “fire-eaters”—began to demand an end to the Union. (2) South Carolina, long the hotbed of Southern separatism, went first. (3) It
Originally written by Chris Miller Updated by Tony Saavedra 2 called a special convention, at which the delegates voted unanimously on December 20, 1860, to withdraw the state from the Union. (4) By the time Lincoln took office, six other Southern states—Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas—had seceded. (5) In February 1861, representatives of the seven seceded states met at Montgomery, Alabama and formed a new nation—the Confederate States of America.