chapter 2

chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Thursday, January 15, 2009 10:05 AM...

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Chapter 2 Thursday, January 15, 2009 10:05 AM Chapter 2: Observing the Microbial Cell SIZE OF PROKARYOTES Prokaryotes are generally smaller than eukaryotes Small size allows nutrients to reach all parts of cell quickly Prokaryotic cells can be as small as 0.2μm. The smallest eukaryotic cells  are 2μm.  Figure 2.4 Cocci shaped bacteria- typically has diameter of 2 µm   Some microbiologists have proposed that bacteria smaller than 0.2 μm  exist in nature, cells  referred to as  nanobacteria If one considers the space needed to house all essential molecules of life,  it is unlikely they could exist within a volume available in a cell less than 0.1  μm.   Prokaryotic cells can have a wide variety of  cellular morphologies,  which  are often helpful in identification.   Bacterial Shapes Simplest shape is  sphere singular- coccus plural- cocci Arrangement: Coccus-  single cells Diplococcus-  2 cells Streptococcus- chains of more than 2 cells  Staphylococcus- grape-like clusters of cells Tetrads- packets of 4 cells stuck together  Staphylococcus aureas  is an organism which grows as staphylococci How do you know if its talking about an organism or a shape? Italicized
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capitalized   Most common shape is rods Singular-  bacillus Plural- bacilli Occur singly or in chains Spirals: Rigid spiral-shaped bacteria are called spirilla (singular- spirillum) Flexible spiral-shaped bacteria are called spirochetes Vibrio – curved rods (kinda looks like sickle-cell) Figure 2.6   Microscopy Simple microscopes one lens magnify 50 – 300 X   Compound microscopes multiple lenses Much higher magnification   Ones in 2051 lab magnify 100x   Lens System of Compound Microscopes
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2009 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Thursday, January 15, 2009 10:05 AM...

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