Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Tuesday 10:01 AM Chapter 4 Bacterial...

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Chapter 4 Tuesday, January 20, 2009 10:01 AM Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture, Growth, and Development      Microbial Nutrition All life requires: Electron flow, to drive all life processes Drives ions into, out of cells  Used to  create ATP Energy, to move electrons  Materials, to make cell parts  Nutrients needed in largest amounts - CHONPS Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur   Electron flow requires: Source of electrons Lithotrophs -   Inorganic molecules are electron donors Organotrophs -  Organic molecules are electron donors Ultimate electron acceptor  Inorganic molecules (nitrate or oxygen) This process is Respiration   Organic molecules (pyruvate) This process is called Fermentation    Source of energy  Phototrophs Light energy excites electrons Excited molecules are electron donors   Chemotrophs Chemicals are electron donors Oxidation of chemical  Oxidation = donation of electrons   Nutrients
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Macronutrients Major elements in cell macromolecules C,H, O, N, P, S Ions necessary for protein function  Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Fe 2+ , K + Micronutrients Trace elements (Co, Cu, Zn, etc) and growth factors (organic  compounds) necessary for enzyme function   Carbon- large amount needed by cells to form organic compounds (amino acids,  Autotrophs  - prokaryotes that can make all cellular structures from CO2  Heterotrophs  - must obtain carbon from organic compounds(most  prokaryotes)   constituents.  Nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes - capable of using atmospheric nitrogen  gas  Most prokaryotes obtain nitrogen from compounds such as ammonia and nitrate     Energy sources:  Chemoorganotrophs  -energy from oxidation (removing electrons) of  organic  compounds  Chemolithotrophs  – energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds. Only in  prokaryotes.  Advantage?  Phototrophs  - contain pigments that allow them to use light as an energy  source.  Advantage? Carbon sources:
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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Tuesday 10:01 AM Chapter 4 Bacterial...

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