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Study guide - Final

Study guide - Final - P&C Final Study Guide Lecture 13...

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P&C – Final Study Guide Lecture 13 – Founding Rome From Hellenic to Hellenistic Culture Peloponnesian Wars : Started end of Greece and power transference o Hellenic culture (flourished in the 5 th c BC) o Effects of Civil War vs. External War o Shifting power: Sparta > Thebes > Athens > Corinth > Athens (insecure government.) o Despair, divisiveness. Sparta wins but they are warriors not governors. Philip of Macedonia – Unifying Greece. Tried to gain an empire for himself. Assassinated Alexander the Great – Son of Philip. Spread Greek culture around his empire. Conquered the world in 12 years. Hellenistic culture – First great international culture in the West. Greek was the language. Alexandria in Egypt – Main city, cultural center, replaced Athens. Culture was more important than diversity. To be Greek was to be intelligent. o Library of Alexandria – Wonders of the world. Contained 700,000 scripts by 1 B.C. Ptolemy I Empire died in 146 BC – Alexander’s death – the end of an empire (lived 33 years) The Rise of Rome – Legends Romulus and Remus – Born of god Mars and a princess. Twins. o Set adrift on the Tiber River in Italy. Rescued by a she-wolf. Raised by a Sheppard couple. o Romulus founds Rome in 753 BC after killing Remus Virgil (70-19 BC): Aeneid o Based on Homer’s Odyssey and Illiad. Creates an instant tradition for Roman empire. o Aeneas – Son of Priam of Troy o Queen Dido of Carthage. Aeneas leaves Dido to go found Rome. Dido suicides. Roman Republic – Extended almost 500 years 3 classes of people o Patricians/senate o Plebeians/people’s assembly o Slaves Public wars (Carthage) 264-146 BC (Over 100 years of war, 3 different times) Romans absorbed Greek culture during the creation of a far-flung empire including the Mediterranean are, Spain, Sicily, Sardinia and northern Africa. o Julius Caesar – 1 st c BC gained control of the Empire o Assassinated in 44 BC
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Octavian (Caesar Augustus, grandnephew of Julius) – 27 BC became supreme ruler of Rome’s rule over the entire known world. o “Pax Romana” – 200 years with no major wars (Caesar Augustus – Marcus Aurelius in AD 180) Lecture 14 – Roman Philosophy Roman arts – Architecture reigned supreme. Heavy influence of the Greeks o Rome adopted all strengths of Greece. Engineering, ruling, governing. Not creativity. Strength is to rule. Greeks incented, Romans copied. o Realism in sculpture vs. Greek idealism Philosophy o Ioninan philosophers – Materialistic/Naturalism. Numbers. Democritos – discovered atoms based on senses and deducing everything around them. Knew senses had a limit. o Eleatic Philosophers – Greeks in colonies. Thinkers. Driven by mind. Universe is unchanging. Influenced by Pythagoras.
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