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COMM110 Final - •Research question o Posed formal...

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Research question o Posed formal question to guide research Hypothesis o Specific predictions based on theories or past research When do you use either? o RQ when the topic has never been or has been little studied. IV/DV o IV – Causal or predictor variable o DV – Variable thought to be changed by another variable Levels of measurement – NOIR o Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio Internal/External validity o Internal validity – Accuracy of the results o External validity – Generalizability of the results o Threats to internal validity (see sheet) o How external is evaluated Sampling (random/nonrandom) Ecological – Real life circumstances? Replication Calculating confidence interval and level C-interval = +- 3% C-level = 95% I am 95% sure that the true results is between 47 and 53% (result is 50%) -------------------------- Measures of central tendency (Median, Mean, Mode) and dispersions (SD, Range).
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