3. Approaches&methods.ppt

3. Approaches&methods.ppt - By viewing the old we learn...

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By viewing the old we learn the new. Chinese Proverb
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Empirical Theoretical Conceptual Ethology Approaches to the study of animal behavior These descriptions represent broad categories of contributing ideas in Animal Behavior.
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Conceptual: Import ideas generated from other subdisciplines and combine them in a new, cohesive way. Example: Hamilton’s inclusive fitness model Cost/Benefit Economic Model Theoretical: Generation of a (usually) mathematical model. Example: Optimal foraging (Pianka) Definitions Empirical: Experiments either manipulative or observational designed to test a concept. Example: Lots! Remember: Correlation is not equal to causation! Manipulation is usually necessary to establish causation.
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Niko Tinbergen 1907-1988 Karl von Frisch 1886-1982 Konrad Lorenz 1903-1989 Classical Ethology Ethology pre-dates behavioral ecology. Relying on descriptive studies, ethologists discovered that many behaviors were innate.
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INNATE COMPONENTS OF BEHAVIOR Ethology = Descriptive science based on studies of animals in the natural environment. Innate behaviors may seem purposeful, but animals with innate behaviors are unaware of the significance of their actions.
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There are 2 key categories of behavior patterns identified in Ethology (after Craig, 1876-1954): 1. Appetitive Behavior. The variable actions of an animal, such as its searching behavior to find food, a nest site or mate. 2. Consummatory Behavior. Stereotypical actions that are repeated without variation, such as the act of mating or killing prey.
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Fixed-Action Patterns The most fundamental concept in classical ethology is the fixed-action pattern ( FAP ). Fixed-action pattern = A highly stereotyped, innate behavior.
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Fixed Action Patterns can occur in response to: Intraspecific Social Stimuli from conspecifics. Example – Courtship behaviors Feeding young Male threat displays Interspecific Stimuli from other species. Example – Startle response Predator avoidance Stimuli from the environment. Example – Migratory behavior Diurnal/Nocturnal cycles
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Ethological studies usually begin with the creation of an ethogram of the Fixed Action Patterns. Ethograms can be modified as additional information becomes available and is incorporated in the whole picture.
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The courtship behavior of the 3-spined stickleback is an elaborate example of Fixed Action Patterns.
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In ethogram form, this highly stereotyped social behavior looks like this: Ethogram = complete inventory or descriptive catalogue of the motor patterns of a given species.
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In the past, Ethologists generally agreed that there are distinctive characteristics of FAPs: 1. FAPs are stereotyped in that they comprise sequences of motor acts which occurred in rigid, predictable, and highly structured sequences. 2. FAPs are
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2009 for the course BIO BIO taught by Professor Mueller during the Fall '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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3. Approaches&methods.ppt - By viewing the old we learn...

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