Exam 1 study guide - Bio 373. Study guide exam I 1....

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Bio 373. Study guide exam I 1. Important concepts/phenomena to understand (use your learning comprehension skills to master them; do not only memorize): - The four fundamental principles of Ecology 1. Ecological systems are physical entities 2. Ecological systems occur in a dynamic steady state 3. Maintenance of living systems requires energy 4. Ecological systems undergo evolutionary change over time. - How would you explain an ecological pattern using the scientific method?* First of all, I must begin with an observation which is the persistent pattern observe in nature of something. The observations lead to models which are theory explaining a pattern hypothesis. Then a hypothesis is formed. A hypothesis is pretty much predictions are made about the pattern based on the model either by verbal or quantitative. The null hypothesis is then formed. The null hypothesis is logical opposite to hypothesis. The null hypothesis should be rejected to an alternative hypothesis can be supported. Experiment is the strongest way to test a null hypothesis. This is where a small number of variables are manipulated independently of others to reveal their particular effects. A control is a treatment that reproduces all aspects of an experiment except the variable of interest. The experiment can be mensurative by using only observations and no manipulations or random selection of the population, whereas the quantitative method uses manipulations and random selection of the population. The design of the experiment is crucial to the success or failure of experiment. And then we interpret the data that comes from the experiment. We can arrive at two possible conclusions. The first one is that the null hypothesis is rejected so the hypothesis and model are supported. The second possible conclusion is that we fail to reject the null hypothesis therefore our alternative hypothesis cannot be supported or there is not enough data. Response variable measures outcome of interest. Explanatory variable is variable used to explain outcome. Extraneous variables are variables that may affect the results but that are not of direct interest. Observational units are units being studied. Experimental units are smallest units to which treatments are assigned. - Water properties and their ecological significance. Water is a good conductor for heat energy and a poor insulator. Water is viscous meaning that it resists flow or the movement of a body through it. Water conducts heat rapidly. Water becomes less dense as it cools below 4 degrees Celsius. The high viscosity of water can retard movement for certain organisms but for some others it helps them from sinking. Water is a great solvent because water molecules are strongly attached to many solids. The powerful solvent properties of water are responsible for most of the minerals in streams, rivers, lakes and oceans.
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- What defines pH levels in water bodies? The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution – acidity. Hydrogen ions, because of their reactivity, dissolve minerals from rock and soil. For
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Exam 1 study guide - Bio 373. Study guide exam I 1....

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