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Formulae_Mech_page1 - Mechanics Basic Physical Concepts b...

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Mechanics - Basic Physical Concepts Math: Circle: 2 π r , π r 2 ; Sphere: 4 π r 2 , (4 / 3) π r 3 Quadratic Eq.: a x 2 + b x + c = 0, x = - b ± b 2 - 4 a c 2 a Cartesian and polar coordinates: x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ , r 2 = x 2 + y 2 , tan θ = y x Trigonometry: cos α cos β + sin α sin β = cos( α - β ) sin α + sin β = 2 sin α + β 2 cos α - β 2 cos α + cos β = 2 cos α + β 2 cos α - β 2 sin 2 θ = 2 sin θ cos θ, cos 2 θ = cos 2 θ - sin 2 θ 1 - cos θ = 2 sin 2 θ 2 , 1 + cos θ = 2 cos 2 θ 2 Vector algebra: ~ A = ( A x , A y ) = A x ˆ ı + A y ˆ Resultant: ~ R = ~ A + ~ B = ( A x + B x , A y + B y ) Dot: ~ A · ~ B = A B cos θ = A x B x + A y B y + A z B z Cross product: ˆ ı × ˆ = ˆ k , ˆ × ˆ k = ˆ ı , ˆ k × ˆ ı = ˆ ~ C = ~ A × ~ B = fl fl fl fl fl fl ˆ ı ˆ ˆ k A x A y A z B x B y B z fl fl fl fl fl fl C = A B sin θ = A B = A B , use right hand rule Calculus: d dx x n = n x n - 1 , d dx ln x = 1 x , d sin θ = cos θ , d cos θ = - sin θ , d dx const = 0 Measurements Dimensional analysis: e.g. , F = m a [ M ][ L ][ T ] - 2 , or F = m v 2 r [ M ][ L ][ T ] - 2 Summation: N i =1 ( a x i + b ) = a N i =1 x i +
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