1. What is the definition of a healthy society
In a healthy society, people have a better chance of living a long life.
People have fewer years impaired by chronic illness, emotional problems, or
2. What challenges did researchers face during the early stages of the AIDs
Initially the “Health Belief Model” kept research focused on
In the absence of social class data, race became a focus in AIDS rate.
result, differences between whites and people of color, rather than differences
of social class, were highlighted
3. Describe the Health Gradient
It is a descriptive model
It is a straight line representing the linear association between low to high
socioeconomic status (SES) and the corresponding high to low risk for disease
and death (See figure 1.1 on p.10
Higher levels of income, education, and occupation are associated with lower
4. According to the readings, provide examples of factors that lead to (or influence)
health outcomes? (i.e., occupation, social capital, etc.)
Occupation, income, education, social class, community culture, living
Biopsychosocial: genetic and physiological makeup, demographic
characteristics, socioeconomic status, social environment, and individual
5. Emile Durkheim: What effect does social cohesion have on individual and
Durkheim found that socially isolated individuals were more likely to commit
suicide than those well integrated into a network of social relationships
Social support encourages healthy behaviors and discourage unhealthy or risk-
6. Define social stratification.
Social stratification refers to the system by which individuals, families, or
classes are located at varying positions in a social hierarchy
7. Describe the two transitions of developed countries. How have these transitions
The first is as the overall standard of living improved and with better nutrition
and sanitation, infectious disease was replaced by chronic disease as the
leading cause of death.