StudyGuidetest3 - Review For Test #3 Ecology: The study of...

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Ecology : The study of relationships between organisms and their environment and among the various ecosystems in the biosphere. Biogeography is the study of distribution of plants and animals, the diverse spatial patterns they create, and the physical and biological processes that produce Earth’s species richness. An ecosystem includes both biotic (living) and abiotic (non living) components Communities are formed by interactions among populations of living animals and plants at a particular time. An Ecosystem is therefore the interaction of many communities. BASIC PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Pants are the critical biotic link between solar energy and the biosphere. What are the limiting factors for Plants? Plants require five things: 1. Sunlight 2. Water 3. Heat 4. Carbon Dioxide 5. Nutrients Climate influences these five factors. Obviously, since plants need sunlight to sustain, they do very well in climates where there is a lot of light. Also, a climate with excellent soil (loaded with nutrients) affects how plants grow. For example, along the equator you experience 12 hours of sunlight per a day. As you move away from the equator in either longitude direction, you have decreasing amount of sunlight. Plants have adapted to this, thus you get different types of plants. Remember though that this shift is gradual and NOT abrupt . Air Water quality and quantity affects plants. Obviously a very toxic water area would restrict plant growth. Since heat and climate also effect the hydrologic cycle, and the amount of water plants receive. Depends on evaporation rates (higher towards the equator) and the perception rates (higher where there is low pressure or rising air) See figure 19.8 on page 615 in the book. Also, there are things called life zones (p616) that influence plants. On a mountain, there are distinct climates, just as if you are moving into higher or lower latitudes. Bottom: Rainforest Temperate Forest Needle leaf forest Tundra Explains why some Mts near the equator can have snow on their peaks Another Example is the Grand Canyon on Arizona. Plants and animals live at the bottom and then you gradually work up the layers. The amount of surrounding vegetation affects the plants because if there are many trees, such as in a rainforest, there is little sunlight left to hit the forest floor, causing very little undergrowth. Just like when someone towers over you, and blocks out the sunlight. (Microclimates) And soil temperatures determine the process rates of the chemicals in nutrients. Transpiration? is the cooling mechanism in plants. Moves water through small openings (the stomata) The water then evaporates, cooling the plant b/c when water evaporates, it takes up latent heat in the process. There are control cells around the stomata that is controlled by the plant
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StudyGuidetest3 - Review For Test #3 Ecology: The study of...

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