L10- SCI

L10- SCI - Spinal Cord Injury and CNS Axon Regeneration...

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Spinal Cord Injury and CNS Axon Regeneration Binhai Zheng, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Neurosciences UCSD BIPN 150 – Diseases of the Nervous System February 10, 2009
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Outline 1. Introduction of axon regeneration and spinal cord injury 2. Molecular and cellular targets to promote spinal cord regeneration 3. New tools and models to study spinal cord axon regeneration
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The Human nervous system: ~100,000,000,000 neurons ~100,000,000,000,000 connections (on average each neuron makes ~1000 connections with its target cells) CNS (Central nervous system): Brain and spinal cord PNS (peripheral nervous system) A distinguishing feature of the nervous system is the intricate network of connections between neurons
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C6 dislocation - MRI Spinal cord injury blocks the flow of information between the brain and the body
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CNS axon regeneration failure presents a major challenge in clinical neuroscience Spinal cord injury ~ 250,000 Americans are spinal cord injured ~ 11,000 new cases each year Nearly half are quadriplegic (cervical lesion) 56% of injuries occur between age 16 and 30 Social impact Economical impact Emotional impact (patients, family and friends) Other neurological condition: Stroke, neurodegenerative diseases
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Etiology * Data up to 2005 1 Motor vehicle crashes 42% 2 Falls 27.1% 3 Acts of violence (e.g. gunshot wound) 15.3% 4 Sports 7.4% 5 All others 8.1%
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Life expectancies for persons with SCI continue to increase SCI has significant social and economic impact. How do we improve the quality of life for SCI patients?
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Priorities for functional recovery in SCI patients Anderson KD. Targeting recovery: priorities of the spinal cord-injured population. J Neurotrauma. 2004 Oct;21(10):1371-83. Walking is not No. 1 on the list
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Ancient Egyptian papyrus ~ 2500 B. C. “When you examine a man with a dislocation of a vertebra of his neck, and you Fnd him unable to move his arms, and his legs… Then you have to say: a disease not to be treated.” Edwin Smith Papyrus, world's earliest known medical document New York Academy of Medicine Library
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Once development was ended, the founts of growth and regeneration of the axons and dendrites dried up irrevocably. In adult centers, the nerve paths are something Fxed, ended, immutable. Everything may die. Nothing may be regenerated. Santiago Ramón y Cajal Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System 1914 Thousands of years have passed…
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Ventral (Anterior) Dorsal (Posterior) Spinal Cord Anatomy 101
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Motor System
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Somatic Sensory System Touch and Pain have different routes to the brain.
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Injured Functional defcits are primary due to axonal damage Spinal Cord Anatomy 101 Cross section Normal White matter Gray matter
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Growth cone Neuron Axon Myelinating cell Adapted from Tessier-Lavigne and Goodman, 2000. Adult mammalian CNS axons fail to regenerate following injury Lesion Myelin debris Wallerian degeneration Retraction ball
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CNS axon regeneration failure presents an attractive basic biology question While adult mammalian CNS axons fail to regenerate: PNS axons regenerate in adult mammals CNS axons in Fsh and tailed amphibians regenerate CNS axons at early developmental stages regenerate
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2009 for the course BIPN 150 taught by Professor Fortes during the Winter '09 term at UCSD.