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Exam 1 - What is pharmacology Pharmakon drug or poison...

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What is pharmacology? Pharmakon – drug or poison Logos – word or discourse (the science of) Pharmacology deals with the fate and actions of drugs in the body. Pharmacology overlaps with pharmacy (the science of the preparation of drugs) and therapeutics (the treatment of disease with drugs and by other means).
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Drug Classifications ( galenicals ) are relatively crude Pure Compounds are isolated from natural sources by physical and chemical extraction and purification . Morphine Semisynthetic compounds are obtained by chemical modification of pure compounds Purely synthetic – accidentally , synthesized
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Drug Nomenclature 1. Chemical name (eg. Ro 15-4513) given by the manufacturer: never use 2. Nonproprietary ( generic ) name; also called official names in pharmacopoeias 3. Proprietary name: more than one name 4. Common name: most familiar Examples: Chemical name: 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-carbethoxypiperidine Official names: meperidine, flunitrazepam, secobarbital Proprietary names: Demerol, Rohypnol, Seconal Common (street) names: Demmies, Roofies (Ropes), Reds
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How are drugs administered and what happens then?
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Routes of Drug Administration Topical - creams or ointments to skin, eye or nose drops , solutions or sprays for mouth, throat, rectum, vagina and urethra, small volumes and low enough concentrations to ensure the drug only acts at the desired site . may also be injected directly; Intrathecal injections (inside spinal canal)into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bypass the blood-brain barrier and the blood-CSF barrier Percutaneous - through the skin , for the purpose of a systemic effect, Absorption is proportional to lipid solubility and can be enhanced by suspending drug in an oily vehicle, Patches Pulmonary epithelium – fast Huge surface area in lungs lots of blood perfusion No first pass effect Injections: advantages (more rapid & predictable absorption), disadvantages (strict asepsis, pain, expense, psychological difficulty in self-injecting?) (GI) Tract – Oral mucosa ( sublingual ): rapid absorption and drugs are not subject to gastric and intestinal digestive juices and first pass effect Stomach & Intestine: Absorption from the upper GI tract depends on pH , gastric emptying rate , intestinal motility, solubility of solid drugs, concentration of drug solutions, stability of drugs in GI fluids. Large surface area. Duration of time substance spends in stomach is greatest variable governing gastric absorption Rectal mucosa ( suppositories ): not degraded by acid or digestive enzymes. No first pass effect
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Types of injections 1. Subcutaneous (s.c.): for non-irritating drugs in small volumes. slow and even drug absorption 2. Intramuscular (i.m.): Aqueous solutions are rapidly absorbed ; slow and even absorption occurs if drugs are suspended or dissolved in oil (forms a depot in muscle).
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