Lecture-16 - Pharmacogenetics Pharmacogenetics is the study...

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Pharmacogenetics Pharmacogenetics is the study of the influence of heredity on the responses to drugs, or their fates in the body. When administering a drug, a physician would like to be able to predict, explain and control variability in the responses of drugs. How do pharmacogenetic defects differ from other inborn errors of metabolism ? Pharmacogenetic defects tend to be ‘ silent ’ in the absence of drug challenge.
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Why is pharmacogenetics important? 1. Increases physician awareness of abnormal drug responses. 2. Knowledge of frequently occurring genetic defects that alter drug responses enables drug manufacturers to avoid introduction of unreliable drugs . 3. Genetic defects can be useful to scientists to elucidate mechanisms underlying normal drug responses.
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Pharmacogenetics can be divided in three major ways: 1. Functional subdivision 2. Pharmacological subdivision 3. Genetic subdivision Functional subdivisions 1. Disorders characterized by increased sensitivity to drugs. 2. Therapeutic failures resulting from increased resistance to drugs. 3. Disorders exacerbated by enzyme-inducing drugs. 4. Diseases to which chronic drug exposure may contribute. 5. Disorders of unknown etiology (study of causation). 6. Disorders associated with diet .
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Pharmacological subdivision The pharmacological classification distinguishes between alterations in a drug’s pharmacodynamics (study of effects of drugs) and alterations in pharmacokinetics (fate of substances administered). Pharmacodynamic : Variation in systems targeted by drugs. Pharmacokinetic : Most affecting drug metabolizing enzymes.
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Genetic subdivisions The primary genetic subdivision is between monogenic (single gene locus defects) versus multigenic variants. Most important differences between people are multigenic. Examples include adult height and predisposition to alcoholism. Monogenic variants
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2009 for the course BIO 51310 taught by Professor Sisson during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Lecture-16 - Pharmacogenetics Pharmacogenetics is the study...

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