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Lecture-21 - Toxicology II Predictive toxicology assesses...

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Toxicology II Predictive toxicology : assesses risks associated with a situation in which the toxic agent, the subject and exposure conditions are defined. LOEL : Lowest observed effect level. NOEL : No observed effect level. Increasing technological sophistication means that we can now detect measurable amounts of metals, toxins and pesticides that were undetectable just a few years ago. We can also detect with greater sensitivity the effects that compounds have (in 1974 the acceptable blood level for lead in children was 40 μ g/dL; in 1993 it was 10 μ g/dL).
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Approaches to risk assessment
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Poisonings Poisonings are a common occurrence (>2 million cases per year), with about a quarter treated at some sort of health care facility and with a fatality rate of 0.07% Common poisons 1. cleaning substances (10.3%) 2. analgesics (9.6%) 3. cosmetics (8.2%) 4. cough & cold remedies (6%) 5. leaves/plant material (5.4%) 6. bites & venoms (4.1%)
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Drug categories most responsible for fatalities are (in order): 1. analgesics 2. antidepressants 3. stimulants (including illegal drugs) 4. hypnotic-sedatives 5. antipsychotics 6. cardiovascular drugs 7. alcohols Breakdown of poisonings by patient age: 56% of cases involved children under the age of 6, 6% involved kids aged 6-12 and 38% involved adults.
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Poison : any substance which by its chemical action may cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. Antidote : a remedy for counteracting the effects of a poison . This may occur by preventing, minimizing or reversing the effects of the poison. Most countries have regional poison information centres staffed with personnel experienced to handle poisoning cases and to dispense information. Other poisoning resources include: databases containing information on product ingredients, medically related toxicological information and current information on the evaluation and treatment of poisonings. The Internet is a great place to start...
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Poisons: the big picture
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Principles of poisoning treatment 1. Minimize systemic absorption of toxin.
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