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08 - Review This week we have learned about The Ocean...

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Unformatted text preview: Review... This week we have learned about: The Ocean Forest Marine invertebrates and fishes Today: Marine mammals primary producers, phytoplankton, algae, seagrass, zooplankton seagrass, sponges, jellyfish, coral, seaworms, seaworms, molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, fish molluscs, Quiz 10 Over the next hour, answer the following questions (you may use notes, material from class, but please answer individually) and turn in "Quiz" as usual... hoping for all 15s! Quiz" usual... 1. What is primary productivity? 2. What is needed for primary productivity to occur (what are the "limiting factors")? factors" 3. Describe one of the examples of an invertebrate 4. What trophic levels do whales feed at? 5. Describe one example of how humans are symbiotic relationship that was discussed in class. creating problems for a type of marine mammal. http://www.oceanfootage.com/stock_footage/marine_mammal_footage.htm Marine Mammals Like all mammals, these guys: breathe air into lungs have hair (cetaceans- not (cetaceansmuch!) are warm-blooded warm have mammary glands with which they nourish their young have a four-chambered fourheart 1 Who are they? Cetaceans Pinipeds whales, dolphins, porpoises fur seals, sealions, walrus, and seals sealions, same family as weasles dugong, seacow, manatee seacow, Dugong Humpback . Breathing Swimming Skin Young Care of Young Thermal regulation MARINE MAMMALS breathe air tail move up and down hair live-born young nurse, protect, teach young warm-blooded FISH breathe water through gills tail moves left and right scales most fish lay eggs none, usually cold-blooded Sea otters Sirenians Whales: 2 types Odontocetes: toothed whales Odontocetes: predators that use their peg-like teeth to catch fish, pegsquid, and marine mammals, swallowing them whole. have one blowhole and use echolocation to hunt. ~66 species Mysticetes Odontocetes Killer whale Mysticetes: baleen whales Mysticetes: Predators with a sieve-like structure in the upper jaw sievemade of keratin (baleen), which they use to filter plankton from the water. Baleen whales are larger than the toothed whales and have 2 blowholes 10 species Humpback whale Sperm whale jaw / teeth Grey whale baleen Humpback whale Atlantic Harbor white-sided porpoise dolphin Bowhead whale Beluga whale Common dolphin Killer whale Bottle-nosed dolphin False killer whale Right whale Minke whale Cuvier's beaked whale Pilot whale Blue whale Feeding on krill Pygmy sperm whale Fin whale Sei whale Mysticetes (baleen whales) Gray whale Fig. 15-39a, p. 436 Narwhal Sperm whale Squid Baird's beaked whale 0 5 10 15 20 70 25 80 30 m 90 100 ft Fig. 15-39b, p. 437 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Odontocetes (toothed whales) 2 Echolocation A toothed whale's echolocation starts with a series of low-frequency clicks (called a train) produced by the lowanimal. This train passes through the melon of the whale (a fat-filled organ in the head of the toothed whale that fatfocuses the sound wave). The train of clicks is focused into a beam that bounces off objects and reflects (echoes) back to the whale. cavities of the lower jaw-bone. These sounds are jawconducted through the bone to the ear and the brain, where the location of the object is interpreted. The whale can determine the distance to an object, its size, shape, the speed that the object is travelling, and its texture. Echolocation, used by toothed whales to locate and perhaps stun their prey. The echoed sound waves are received in the fat-filled fat- Fig. 15-40, p. 438 Who holds the record for longest mammalian migration? Grey whales Mexico to the Arctic, (~8000 km, 4700 miles) "However, no individual grey whale has been documented travelling the full extent of their migratory range, and it's possible that no grey whales actually make the entire migration" migration" Antarctic to the tropics (Costa Rica) warm water to breed & raise young 2007, researchers photographed tails & identified 7 of the same animals at both ends One mother and calf made the 8300 km (5160(5160mile) trip in 161 days. Using satellite data, the team also recorded seaseasurface temperatures for the sites where humpbacks spent the winter. "Wintering areas occur where waters with temperatures between 21C and 28C are found," says Rasmussen. This 21 28 found," supports the idea that the long migration saves the whales energy in the end. Grays versus Humpbacks! Humpback whales Travel from cold-water feeding grounds to warm-water breeding grounds coldwarm- Dolphins and Porpoises Dolphins belong to the family Delphinidae- the largest and most diverse Delphinidaefamily of the cetacean order and includes 26 living species possess a distinct beak have conical shaped teeth mostly larger than porpoises Can you tell who is a dolphin and who is a porpoise? Porpoises belong to the family Phocoenidae- only 6 species Phocoenidaehave no distinct beak foreheads slope almost uniformly to the tip of their snout smaller and more robust, about 5-7 feet in length 5teeth are spade-like in shape spade- 3 Pinipeds fur seals, sealions, walrus, and seals sealions, translates from Latin as "feather or fin foot," Must come ashore to breed, give birth, and 2 categories: to otters Ear referring to their often large fin-like flippers. finnurse their young. Earless seals (true seals) ex: Northern elephant seal and harbor seal believed to have descended from terrestrial mammals similar Eared seals (sea lions) ex: California sea lion and the Northern fur seal believed to have descended from a bear-like mammal bearThe California sea lion, the "seal" of seal shows. Female elephant seals rest and molt on a central California beach. Fig. 15-43a, p. 440 A West Indian manatee or sea cow herbivores graze on seagrass, mangroves, algae most known in Florida major problem with injury / death from boat strikes Polar Bear Two sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in a California kelp bed. Sea otters have the densest fur of any mammal. Fig. 15-44, p. 441 Fig. 15-46, p. 442 4 ...
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