08 - Invertebrates & Fish Table 15-1, p. 409 What is your...

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1 Invertebrates & Fish Invertebrates & Fish Table 15-1, p. 409 What is your trophic level? • Trophic levels begin with phytoplankton, a primary producer capable of transforming inorganic carbon into carbohydrate. • Zooplankton is the second level- they eat phytoplankton and are a source of energy for crustaceans at the third level. • The fourth level is fish that eat crustaceans and the fifth is seals and other animals that eat fish. • The more trophic levels present, the less energy is conserved at higher trophic levels. primary producers primary consumers secondary consumers tertiary consumer Marine plants = base if of the food chain Fig. 15-1, p. 408 The “OXYGEN REVOLUTION” After the emergence of photosynthetic organisms, oxygen began to accumulate in the atmosphere. Early Life on Earth CREATED conditions for Present Life Thank you !
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2 Invertebrates • Invertebrate zoology is that branch of science dealing with animals that have no backbones • These guys are among the most familiar creatures of the sea and shore • many commercially important / valuable • ex: mollusks, coral, crabs, sponges, lobsters, sea anemone, barnacles, shrimp, sea worms, sea stars, sea cucumbers, bryozoa… Sponge (phylum Porifera) •E x t r em e l y plant-like in appearance • One of the most primitive animals in the sea • Most relatively small, but some are over 6 ft in diameter • Shape determined by shape of sediment/rock they grow on and currents • Sponges differ from all other marine invertebrates in that they have no true tissues or organs . Their structure is composed of simple aggregations of cells. • The tissue of sponges encloses a vast network of chambers and canals that connect to the open pores on their surface. • Sponges feed by drawing a current of water in through their pores, filtering out the nutrients, and then ejecting it out through an opening. Fig. 15-3, p. 410 A type of collar cell An upright sponge The body plan of a simple sponge A section through a sponge body wall Ecology of sponges? • Although simple, benthic, attached animals, they compete aggressively for space – Need solid material to attach to so compete with coral- some produce chemicals that can kill or inhibit coral growth • Form many symbiotic relationships – Some crabs attach pieces of sponge to themselves for camouflage and protection and provide a solid surface for sponge to grow on • Provide habitats for other organisms • Few animals feed on them (like eating needles); many are toxic to fish; some sea turtles feed exclusively on them
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3 Jellyfish (phylum Cnidaria) • Basic body shape of a cnidarian consists of a sac containing a gastrovascular cavity with a single opening that functions as both mouth and anus.
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course EAS 104 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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08 - Invertebrates & Fish Table 15-1, p. 409 What is your...

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