10 - ENERGY FLOW READINGS FREEMAN 2005 Chapter 54 Pages...

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ENERGY FLOW READINGS: FREEMAN, 2005 Chapter 54 Pages 1247-1252
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ECOSYSTEMS, THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY FLOW The concept of energy flow in ecosystems is a cornerstone of ecology. Energy flow in ecosystems is based on the assumption that the laws of thermodynamics apply to all observable nature and thus apply to trophic levels.
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Two Laws of Matter and Energy 1. Matter and energy can not be created or destroyed. The law of conservation of matter and energy. 2. When energy is changed from one form to another some is always degraded into heat. Energy transfer is never 100% efficient.
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Two Laws of Matter and Energy The implication of these two laws of matter and energy are that: 1. MATTER CAN BE RECYCLED. 2. ENERGY CAN NOT BE RECYCLED. Thus, these two laws of nature govern the recycling of matter and the flow of energy.
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A Model for the Cycling of Matter and Flow of Energy
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A Model of Energy (Transfer) from One Trophic Level to Another
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A Model of Energy (Transfer) from One Trophic Level to Another Each successive transfer of energy results in less and less available energy since each trophic level converts some incoming energy to low grade heat through respiration.
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Energy Budget for Producers Gross Production (Photosynthesis) = Net Primary Production + Respiration. Net Primary Production = Growth and Reproduction + Transfer to 1 o Consumers (Herbivory) + Transfer to Decomposers (Decomposition)
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Energy Budget for Producers Producers are able to capture solar energy and convert to chemical bond energy. Much of that energy they used for cellular respiration. Some of that energy is consumed by herbivores. Some becomes part of dead tissue and is passed on to decomposers. Some is stored as growth and reproduction.
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An Energy Budget for Producers QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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Energy Budget for Consumers Primary (1 o ) consumers obtain their energy from producers. They use it in respiration, store it by growth and reproduction, pass it on to higher level consumers when they are eaten and along to decomposers when they die.
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