08 - We OIL & GAS BP- Deep Gulf offshore rig Brief...

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Unformatted text preview: We OIL & GAS BP- Deep Gulf offshore rig Brief history of petroleum... petroleum... People have known about petroleum from pre-history, pre simply because there were places on Earth where it literally seeped from the ground. The modern era of petroleum drilling, however, began in 1853, when an American lawyer named George Bissell (1821-1884) recognized its potential for use as a lamp (1821fuel. He hired "Colonel" Edwin Drake (1819-1880) to oversee (1819the drilling of an oil well at Titusville, Pennsylvania, and in 1859 Drake struck oil. The legend of "black gold," of fortunes to be made by drilling holes in the ground, was born. In the wake of the development and widespread application of the internal-combustion engine during the internallatter part of the nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth centuries, interest in oil became much more intense, and wells sprouted up around the world... world... Economic extinction of North Atlantic Right & Sperm Whales Price of whale oil (2 liters) Oil lamps Whale shortage Oil Society - Light & Freedom "Rock oil emits dainty light; the brightest and the cheapest in the world; a light fit for Kings and not unsuitable for Republicans and Democrats." Author Democrats." of American's first handbook on oil (1860) American' 1831 = $0.30 1854 = $1.92 THEN, after rock oil substitute: 1866 = $1.28 By 1850 a consumer had a choice of: Camphene or "burning fluid" -- 50 cents (alcohol / turpentine / camphor oil bright, sweet smelling) whale oil -- $1.30 to $2.50 lard oil -- 90 cents (low quality, smelly) coal oil 50 cents (sooty, smelly, low quality) (the original "kerosene") kerosene 60 cents (introduced in early 1860s) 1 Auto surge Automobile Culture 1945: 25 million cars 1948: USA as Oil exporter -> importer 1950: 40 million today? US up to 250 million... million... GM + Socal (Chevron) + Firestone buy out electric rail system Los Angeles Freeways (not tollways) tollways) Garages, Drive-ins, Malls Drive Service Stations We are living in the "Petroleum Window" "Petroleum Window" "The amazing exhibition of oil" is only "a temporary oil" "The "a State Geologist of Pennsylvania (1885). (1885). (1885). and vanishing phenomenon one which young men will live to see come to its natural end." end." What is "Rock Oil"? "Rock Oil"? Hydrocarbon!! 2 HOW IS THIS STUFF FORMED? Steps to get gas to your car... 1. Energy capture 2. Source sediments 3. Sediment maturation 4. Reservoir rock migration 5. Trap 6. Seal 7. Discovery 8. Production 9. Refining 10. Pump ...well, it's not quite that simple... simple... ...well, it' it's Oil formation - Plankton burial Remember diatoms? Complex organics -> Chain hydrocarbons Temperature (burial depth) + Time Slide from: Annabelle Foos ("Geology of Energy Resources"; Univ. Akron) Resources" www3.uakron.edu/geology/Foos/Energy/energy.html Oil formation -- Migration Oil SOURCE rock = Oil is Lighter than flow) typically fine-grained fineclay-rich with LOW claypermeability (ease of Water Oil RESERVOIR rock = open & connected spaces (typically Slide from: Annabelle Foos ("Geology of Energy Resources"; Univ. Akron) Resources" www3.uakron.edu/geology/Foos/Energy/energy.html 3 Reservoir rock Proximity to source rock Porosity Permeability Trap / seal Accessibility Hydrocarbon Trap Types Key = Localized reservoirs Former oceanic margins & basins; with traps, etc. Special conditions for Super-Giants Super Where => modern geogeopolitics! Anticlin e Fault Pinchout Salt Dome Unconformi ty American Petroleum Institute, 1986 How do we find it? Thank a geologist every time you use it! Seismic Imaging -- Marine 4 Production: "Seven Sisters" BP (Anglo-Persian) (AngloExxon (Standard Oil New Jersey) Mobil (Standard Oil New York) Chevron (Standard Oil California) Gulf (later bought by Chevron) Texaco Shell Rank by 2006 Oil Equivalent Reserves 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Company National Iranian Oil Company (Iran) 3 Worldwide Liquids Reserves, Million Barrels 136,000 3 Worldwide Natural Gas Reserves, Billion Cubic Feet 974,000 248,500 112,000 910,500 198,500 54,500 152,380 181,900 52,650 161,740 171,176 53,469 24,758 82,096 26 13,856 32,480 Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Arabia) Iraq National Oil Company (Iraq) 2,3 259,400 115,000 15,207 92,200 99,000 80,120 36,220 41,464 12,270 0 11,618 15,963 5,300 15,927 12,849 8,194 Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (Qatar)3 Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (UAE) Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (Kuwait) Petroleos de Venezuela.S.A. (Venezuela) 3 Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (Nigeria) National Oil Company (Libya) Sonatrach (Algeria) Gazprom (Russia) PetroChina Co. Ltd. (China) OAO Rosneft (Russia) Petronas (Malaysia) OAO Lukoil (Russia) Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico) ExxonMobil Corporation (United States) 2,3 2,3 3 Largest Hydrocarbon Basins by Ultimate Potential ~61% of US oil is imported largest on Earth Ghawar oil field Coastal Gulf 1,200 1,000 800 All "Giant" Fields are Giant" now EMPTY ! Gulf Coast (66.1) Giants,1 of 3 Texas and Louisiana MMBOE 600 200 0 Katy Old Ocean Oil Greta (Tom O'Connor) 400 Gas Bayou Sale Conroe Hastings Field Size Remaining Recoverable Estimate Gulf Coast (66.1) Giants, 2 of 3 1,000 800 MMBOE 600 400 200 0 Borregos (Seeligson) Bastian Bay Webster Reynosa (Hidalgo; Klump) Bateman Lake West Ranch Field Size Remaining Recoverable Estimate 5 Shallow-water Gulf Shallow-water GULF OF MEXICO OFFSHORE (SHALLOW) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Shallow-water Drilling Shallow-water Fixed platform (shallow; stilts) flood to set on bottom) Barge-mounted (very, very shallow; Barge- "Giant" fields Giant" 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950's windfall. Now, essentially emptied: 1950' Gulf of Mexico (66.2) Giants, 1 of 2 Offshore Louisiana 1,000 800 MMBOE 600 400 200 0 Bay Marchand Caillou Island West Delta Block 73 Timbalier Bay West Delta Block 30 South Pass Block 24 field size Remaining Estimate Deep-water Gulf Deep-water Deep-Water Technology Deep-Water World's deepest (5600 ft World' Depth barrier to development until 1990s water) = Mississippi Canyon [586 ft long; 8 production risers] Mars Largest Gulf discovery since 1980s 3000 ft water; 130 miles from coast $1 billion "secret" platform; 24 gas & oil wells secret" Pipeline to 3-million barrel salt-dome cavern 3salt- Thunder Horse Tension-Leg Platform Tension- Discovered 1999; near Mars. Depth 6300 ft. Production expected 2005 (up to 250,000 barrels/day) - delayed by Hurricane Katrina Tension-leg Platform- engineering marvel!! TensionPlatform~$5 billion to produce currently largest field in gulf Four 165-ft columns (65 ft diameter) 165 12 tendons (7-ft diameter) connect to seafloor (7- 6 Refining Then you've got crude oil... you've oil... Useless stuff, until ... "What is a Refinery" -- Chevron learning center (www.chevron.com/learning_center/) Refinery" 7 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course EAS 104 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.

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