Nomenclature_Reactions_handout

Nomenclature_Reactions_handout - Nomenclature & Chemical...

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Nomenclature & Chemical Reactions Nomenclature& Reactions 8/23/06 p. 1 A Brush-up on Nomenclature Covalent Compounds: Nonmetal - nonmetal compounds Most of these compounds are simple binary coupounds, so these names contain of two parts. The compound’s name consists of an indication of how many of one element followed by an indication of how many of the other element are bonded to the first. The name of the less electronegative element is given first, with no special ending or suffix. Following a space, the base name of the more electronegative element is given with an -ide ending, e.g., oxide, nitride, chloride. There are no other endings for covalent compounds. The number of the atoms of each type is specified by the prefixes: mono = 1 di = 2 tri = 3 tetra = 4 penta = 5 hexa = 6 hepta = 7 octa = 8 Always use prefixes, except mono which can be dropped. (Except: CO = carbon monoxide.) CO = carbon monoxide N 2 O = dinitrogen monoxide PCl 3 = phosphorus trichloride As 2 S 5 = diarsenic pentasulfide HF = hydrogen fluoride Note that these substances are more like a door or a rock rather than a Michael Andrew or a Juan Jose’. As names for common stuff, they DO NOT begin with a capital letter, as a matter of fact they contain NO upper case letters, Thus, HYDROGEN FLOURIDE even shrunk in size with a smaller font is wrong. This applies in formulae as well. Note that elemental symbols with two letters are exclusively [UPPER CASE - lower case] in the same font, not [BIG FONT - LITTLE FONT ] or [bigfont - little font ]. Ionic Compounds: Metal cation or ammonium containing compounds The names of ionic compounds also have two parts. The positive ion, the cation, is named first with no ending. The negative ion is named last using the acceptable name for that particular ion. There are only three possible anion endings: -ide, -ite or -ate. Each ending has a different meaning and will be explained below. For ionic compounds, the total overall charge (sum of + and - charges) must be equal zero. The charges on the ions must be known. The charges for ions are determined from the name and an understanding of the periodic table. Charges for positive ions are discussed below, but for many cations the charge is equal to the group number and for the monatomic anions by (Grp.No.-8). The number of ions of each type is not given by prefixes in the compound’s name. These numbers must be determined by figuring how many ions of each type are needed to make the sum of the charges zero. The Cations:
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2009 for the course CHM 467 taught by Professor Loeffler during the Spring '09 term at Sam Houston State University.

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Nomenclature_Reactions_handout - Nomenclature & Chemical...

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