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Unformatted text preview: What is Ocean Science? Pacific Pacific Earth's Ocean
Arctic Arctic Indian Indian multi-disciplinary multiconstantly changing global science Nearly all research is conducted not by individuals but by teams of specialists working in large, nationally funded oceanographic or military institutions tools of modern oceanography include satellites, manned remotely controlled vehicles, computer modeling, etc. Southern Southern Atlantic Atlantic single connected global ocean shapes change over time covers 71% of Earth's surface high-tech high- Oceanography: integration of multiple science disciplines Marine geology the study of Earth's crust and Earth' Earth's composition Physical oceanography the study of waves, currents, and climate prediction Marine biology the study of the nature and distribution of marine organisms Chemical Oceanography the study of the dissolved gases and solids in the ocean Marine engineering the design and construction of structures used in or on the ocean 1 You are here Need a global reference system x-y global grid: latitude and longitude x-y Latitude
0-90 N & S 90 0-90 Longitude
0-180 E & W 180 0-180 Mercator projection used on modern sailing charts distorts high latitudes Fig. III-5, p. 543 2 Scientific Ocean explorers researchers Ancient ocean exploration: Polynesian ~30,000 yrs ago Scandinavians (~800 AD) Chinese (~1400s) global! How do we know about currents? Oceanic knowledge driven by necessityfishing, travel B. Franklin's 1769 chart of the Gulf Stream system fisherman discovered "faster water" The first scientific expeditions were
undertaken by governments military applications and drive from the start HMS Challenger expedition of 1872-1876 1872- was the first oceanic expedition dedicated to scientific research. We use SCIENCE to study the ocean
What is "science" ??? Science is the process of asking questions about the
observable world and then testing the answers to those questions. The external world, not internal conviction, is the testing ground for scientific beliefs. Scientific methods are not a simple set of steps followed
Ask a question ! Form a working hypothesis ! Observe or experiment ! Form theories and laws by every researcher to answer every question. However, some questions can be answered by using the following method: 3 Subject is NATURE World of physical phenomena NOT: NOT:
Politics, Art, Religion, Baseball EX: Global Warming Science: Monitor and predict change;
Estimate costs of controls NOT science: Political feasibility Scientific Method:
IT IS ---A continuous process used to: ---A A systematic process of asking questions about the observable world and then testing the answers to those questions
Curiosity A question arises about an event or situation: Why and how does this happen? Why are things this way? Scientific Method 1. 2. 3. 4. collect observations form and test ideas to explain those observations make predictions identify patterns in the physical world Law Theories can evolve into larger constructs: laws. Laws explain events in nature that occur with unvarying uniformity under identical conditions. Laws summarize experimental observations. Observations, measurements Our senses are brought to bear: What is happening? Under what circumstances? When? How does it operate? Does there appear to be a dependable cause-andeffect relationship at work? IT IS NOT --a set of facts or a catalogue of answers --a Theory Patterns emerge. If one or more of the relationships hold, the hypothesis becomes a theory, an explanation for the observations that is accepted by most researchers. Hypothesis A tentative explanation is proposed. Controlled experiments are planned to prove or disprove potential cause-andeffect relationships. A good hypothesis can predict future occurrences under similar circumstances. Experiments Tests are undertaken in nature or in the laboratory. These tests permit manipulating and controlling the conditions under which observations are made. Cause-Effect Cause-Effect There is a reason for everything that happens in
nature Understand Cause => Understand Result, hence
Predict. Observations and experiments must be reported in such a way that anyone with the proper equipment can verify the results. Scientific results must be reproducible! What methods do marine scientists use to obtain and
interpret data? 4 A scientific hypothesis must be TESTABLE must be FALSIFIABLE only needs one proof to discredit it difficult to "prove" correct (even though it prove" "prove" multiple working hypotheses
may have MUCH evidence that supports it)
Law Curiosity A question arises about an event or situation: Why and how does this happen? Why are things this way? Observations, measurements Our senses are brought to bear: What is happening? Under what circumstances? When? How does it operate? Does there appear to be a dependable cause-andeffect relationship at work? Theories can evolve into larger constructs: laws. Laws explain events in nature that occur with unvarying uniformity under identical conditions. Laws summarize experimental observations. Theory Patterns emerge. If one or more of the relationships hold, the hypothesis becomes a theory, an explanation for the observations that is accepted by most researchers. Hypothesis A tentative explanation is proposed. Controlled experiments are planned to prove or disprove potential cause-andeffect relationships. A good hypothesis can predict future occurrences under similar circumstances. Experiments Tests are undertaken in nature or in the laboratory. These tests permit manipulating and controlling the conditions under which observations are made. Is it a scientific hypothesis? Is it a scientific hypothesis? Barry Bonds is a better baseball
player than Hank Aaron The Earth is round Is it a scientific hypothesis? Is it a scientific hypothesis? Global warming is an Increasing CO2 levels are causing the Earth to warm unprecedented catastrophe that needs to be dealt with immediately 5 Is it a scientific hypothesis? There are other inhabited
planets in the universe Is it a scientific hypothesis? Any two objects dropped from the
same height above the surface of the Earth will hit the ground at the same time (as long as air resistance is not a factor) Hypothesis 1.Based upon a summary of experimental or observational results 2.Phrased so that it can be tested by experimentation A tentative guess about how some aspect of the world works Simplify, Simplify Unifying Laws and Theories Complexity added, only if
Newton/Einstein Plate Tectonics Evolution
required by new observations Theory Fact A description of the world that covers a large number of phenomena phenomena and has met many observational and experimental tests A confirmed or agreed upon observation or conclusion Scientific Law A generalization about the behavior of nature from which there has has been no known deviation after numerous observations or experiments
A law describes what happens in nature, but not why Example: Newton's law of motion, or the laws of thermodynamics Experiments
1. Real-Time Real-Time lab 2. Observations 1. Thought nature, historical records ex: general relativity 6 How Science is Organized
Communication: Meetings (biannual meeting are common) Publications (peer-reviewed periodicals, journals, books) (peer(peer-reviewed journals, books) Popular journalism Scientific Societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 140,000 members publishes Science National Academy of Sciences started by Abraham Lincoln to give help to the govt on govt on issues/policy requiring scientific input only about 2000 members (60.year) by invitation only 2 Purdue faculty American Chemical Society- 150,000 members Society- 150,000 members American Geophysical Union- 40,000 members Union- 40,000 members Science is worthless without communication GOAL OF THIS CLASS: BECOME LITERATE CONSUMERS OF OCEAN SCIENCE DOING science distinct from USING science Develop informed opinions and make decisions based on knowledge of processes (rather than just emotion) Science is not static being informed required action / upkeep! scientists build off of each other "stand on the shoulders of giants!" giants!" "stand Science employs a logical and empirical methodology to understand the natural world. Scientific research world. Scientific research entails observation of natural phenomena, formulation phenomena, formulation of hypotheses as tentative, testable statements to testable statements to explain these phenomena, and experiments or observations to test these hypotheses. Scientific theories, like evolution and relativity and plate tectonics, are hypotheses that have survived survived extensive testing and repeated verification. verification. Scientific theories are therefore the best-substantiated bestbest-substantiated statements that scientists can make to explain the organization and operation of the natural world. Thus, a scientific theory is not equal to a belief, a hunch, or an untested hypothesis. Our understanding of Earth's development over its 4.6 billion-year history and of life's gradual evolution has billionbillion-year achieved the status of scientific theory.
May 1990, May 1994, May 1994; expanded and reaffirmed December 1999, reaffirmed May 1990, May 1994, May 1994; expanded and reaffirmed December 1999, reaffirmed 1999, December 2003 December 2003
Earth image by Apollo 17 Dec.7, 1972 American Geophysical Union: Earth History and the Evolution of Life Must Be Earth History and the Evolution of Life Must Be
Taught: Creationism Is Not Science; Adopted by Council December 1981 ; Reaffirmed Taught: Creationism Is Not Science; Adopted by Council December 1981 ; Reaffirmed 7 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course EAS 104 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.
- Spring '08