Chapter 4, Responses to Review Questions_____________________________________________________________________________1. Heat is the name given to the energy transferred between two objects at different temperatures. Temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of atoms or molecules composing a substance.2. Absolute zero (0 K) is the temperature at which an object exhibits no kinetic-molecular activity and emits no electromagnetic radiation. (Actually, there is some atomic-scale activity at absolute zero.)3. An instrument shelter protects a thermometer from exposure to precipitation, direct solar radiation, and the night sky. With this protection, thermometer readings are more representative of the ambient air temperature.4. In response to a temperature gradient, heat energy is transported by conduction, convection, and radiation from where it is warmer to where it is colder. Some meteorological examples: (a) Heat transport from relatively mild air to a cold snow cover in immediate contact with that air is an example of conduction. (b) Air heated by relatively warm ground expands and is forced
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