Details to Know

Details to Know - Details to know-Freud I. Overview of...

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Details to know-Freud I. Overview of Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Freud’s psychoanalysis is the best known of all personality theories because it (1) postulated the primacy of sex and aggression—two universally popular themes; (2) attracted a group of followers who were dedicated to spreading psychoanalytic doctrine; and (3) advanced the notion of unconscious motives, which permit varying explanations for the same observations. II. Levels of Mental Life Freud saw mental functioning as operating on three levels: the unconscious, the preconscious, and the conscious. A. Unconscious The unconscious consists of drives and instincts that are beyond awareness but that motivate many of our behaviors. Unconscious drives can become conscious only in disguised or distorted form, such as dream images, slips of the tongue, or neurotic symptoms. Unconscious processes originate from two sources: (1) repression , or the blocking out of anxiety-filled experiences and (2) phylogenetic endowment , or inherited experiences that lie beyond an individual’s personal experience. B. Preconscious The preconscious contains images that are not in awareness but that can become conscious either quite easily or with some level of difficulty. C. Conscious Consciousness is the only level of mental life directly available to us, but it plays a relatively minor role in Freudian theory. Conscious ideas stem from either the perception of external stimuli ( perceptual conscious system) or from unconscious and preconscious images after they have evaded censorship. III. Provinces of the Mind Freud conceptualized three regions of the mind: the id, the ego, and the superego. A. The Id The id, which is completely unconscious, serves the pleasure principle and seeks constant and immediate satisfaction of instinctual needs. As the region of the mind that contains the basic instincts, the id operates through the primary process . B. The Ego The ego, or secondary process , is governed by the reality principle ; that is, it is responsible for reconciling the unrealistic demands of both the id and the superego with the demands of the real world. C. The Superego The superego, which serves the idealistic principle, has two subsystems: the conscience and the ego-ideal. The conscience results from punishment for improper behavior whereas the ego-ideal stems from rewards for socially acceptable behavior. IV. Dynamics of Personality The term dynamics of personality refers to those forces that motivate people. The concept includes both instincts and anxiety. A. Instincts Freud grouped all human drives or urges under two primary instincts: sex (Eros or the life instinct) and aggression (the destructive or death instinct). 1.
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Details to Know - Details to know-Freud I. Overview of...

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