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Unformatted text preview: Biology 111 1. The Immune System Distinguish between spe cific and nonspecific immune defense s. The nonspecific immune defenses seem pre tty impre ssive , so why do we nee d the spe cific immune defense s? 2. How does the normal bacterial flora of loca tions like the mou th and the vagina prote ct u s from disea se? Wha t is the protective role of lysozyme? 3. How does the infla mmation re sponse help the b ody fight infection? 4. Contrast the roles of ma crophage s and na tural kille r cells in the nonspe cific immu ne re sp onse. 5. Your advisor says he's working on ide ntifying the gene s f or "Toll-like recep tors" in p rimitive vertebrate s. What are Toll-like recep tors and wha t do they do? 6. What is the role of interfe ron in the nonspecific immune resp onse ? Same que stion f or tu mor necrosis factors. 7. Why do the lymp h node s swell du ring an infe ction? 8. You sign up f or a senior re search p roject, and find out that you r advisor is doing re search on cytokines. What do you think your re search project will involve? 9. Do inve rteb rate s ha ve an immu ne syste m? D o humans have more a dvanced immu ne syste ms than primitive vertebra tes, such as sharks? 10. Why do we say the hu man immune system has the p roperty of spe cificity? Why do we say it has the prope rty of diversity? Why do we say it has the property of me mory? 11. Why is self-nonse lf re cognition such a vital prope rty of the immu ne syste m? Why is danger recognition an important part of an efficient immune re sponse ? 12. What are MHC markers? Contra st Cla ss I markers and Class II ma rkers. What is an antigen? Wha t is an epitope? 13. In general te rms, contrast antib ody- media ted and cell- media ted immu ne re sp onse. Wha t kinds of infections do each of the m fight? 14. Why do we say tha t b oth the antib ody- mediated and ce ll-media ted immu ne re sp onses operate by clonal selection? Distinguish between an "effector" clone and a "memory" clone . 15. What are AP Cs and what role do the y play in b oth the antib ody- media ted and cell- media ted immu ne reponse s? 16. What role do helpe r T-cells p lay in antibody- media ted immunity? In cell- media ted immunity? 17. What role do interleukins 1 a nd 2 play in the antib ody- media ted and cell- media ted immu ne rep onse s? 18. How do antib odie s fight infection? 19. Same que stion f or cytotoxic T-cells. 20. Same que stion f or compleme nt. What is the relation between the antib odies and comple ment? 21. You are an inactive B cell. What stimuli mu st you rece ive bef ore you will conve rt to being a plasma cell? Just tell wha t the B cell itself would "see," not e verything that' s going on in the ba ckground. 22. Same que stion as ab ove, bu t this time you a re an inactive cytotoxic T cell. 23. Explain why secondary immu ne resp onse is fa ste r than primary re sp onse . Name the ce lls which take part in each. Wha t class of antib odies take part in each? 24. If you wa nte d to find memory B ce lls and me mory T ce lls, where in the hu man b ody would you look? 25. Why do you think the spe cific immu ne resp onse is so complica ted and require s so many different kinds of signals (e .g., pre sence of antigen, antigen being displayed on APCs, the right mix of cytokines) bef ore it initia tes a re sp onse? The re is no def initive answer, bu t specula te. 26. Why do you get some disea ses ( measle s) only once but others (colds and flu) again and again? 27. Distinguish between active and passive immu nity. How is pa ssive immu nity u sed in medicine ? 28. What is antigen shifting and how doe s it help pa thogens resist immune a tta ck? 29. What is an au toimmu ne disaea se, and how can it get started? Name two au toimmu ne disea ses. 30. What is an allergy? What is the role of IgE antib odie s in allergie s? Why do allergies re sult in weep y eyes and runny nose s? Why do they of ten resu lt in whe ezing and difficulty b reathing? 31. Why does exp osure to an allerge n some times re sult in anaphylactic shock? In case s of le thal anaphylactic shock, why doe s death occur? *3 2 . Explain why the AIDS virus eva des the immune syste m and is so le thal. 33. Last seme ster, you lea rned tha t although there a re doze ns of e nzyme s tha t repair e rrors in D NA, the re are no enzyme s to repair errors in RNA. Why is this significant f or ou r inability to produce a vaccine against AIDS? 34. What is ca ncer? How doe s cance r kill a pe rson? Contra st a malignant tu mor and a benign tu mor. 35. Distinguish between a ca rcinoma and a sarcoma . Which is more comon? 36. What is an oncogene and how can it cau se cance r? 37. What is the Multiple Hit Theory and why doe s it a ccou nt f or the fact that cancers a re ra re in young people? 38. What are anti-angioge nesis dru gs, and why are they a promising area of cance r research? ...
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- Spring '08