CH369.lecture10.2-26-2009

CH369.lecture10.2-26-2009 - Chapter 10 Glucose Metabolism...

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Figure 10.01 Yeast cells. Chapter 10 Glucose Metabolism
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Common intermediates in different metabolic pathways
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Structure of glycogen.
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Figure 9.04b Structure of glycogene.
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Introduction of glucose Glucose is the most abundant organic molecule on earth. It plays a central role in metabolism in all living cells. It can serve as a precursor for other biomolecules; It provides energy. In some organisms, it is the only energy producing pathway, such as protozoan Trypanosoma brucei; • Glucose can be converted to ethanol and CO 2 in yeast Beer!
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In this chapter Glycolysis - The conversion of the 6- carbon glucose to the 3-carbon pyruvate (10 steps reaction); Gluconeogenesis – synthesis of glucose (11) Glycogenolysis – glycogen degradation Glycogenesis - glycogen synthesis Pentose phosphate pathway
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Multi-step metabolism 1. Each step of the pathway is catalyzed by a distinct enzyme. 2. The free energy consumed or released in certain reactions is transferred by molecules such as ATP and NADH. 3. The rate of the pathway can be controlled by altering the activity of individual enzymes.
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Advantages of a multi-step reaction Cells have higher control over the reaction X Y X A B Y Slower release of energy in smaller and useful quantity Combustion Glucose CO + H O
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Representation of glucose structure.
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Cellulose fibers in a plant cell wall.
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Glucose residues are linked by glycosidic bonds in starch, glycogen, and cellulose. α(1 4) bond β(1 4) bond Breaks down by glycogen Breaks down by cellulase phosphorylase Starch, glycogen Cellulose
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Structure of glycogene. α 1,4 bond α 1,6 bond
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Glycogenolysis (liver or muscles) Blood Liver
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Only the glycogen in liver can raise blood glucose level. Glycogen in muscles can enter catabolic pathway, but does not affect the blood glucose level.
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Blood glucose concentration Fasting blood glucose:70-99 mg/dL 2 hours after eating 70-145 mg/dL Random 70-125 mg/dL
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Glycolysis The Reaction Glucose + 2NAD + + 2ADP + 2 pi pyruvate + 2NADH + 2ATP
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Glucose metabolism in context.
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2009 for the course CH 369 taught by Professor Kbrowning during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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CH369.lecture10.2-26-2009 - Chapter 10 Glucose Metabolism...

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