Chem121-Chapter-1

Chem121-Chapter-1 - Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement R...

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Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement © R. Spinney 2009 What is Chemistry? • The Study of MATTER – Which has mass and occupies space (volume). • Composition – what matter is made of and in what proportions Æ chemical formulas. • Structure – the arrangement of components of matter in a sample. • Reaction – involves changes in composition and structure but NOT the destruction of matter. What is Chemistry? (cont’d) • Chemistry studies the products, amounts, energy and rates of change of reactions – chemical properties. • Chemistry – a science, which is an organized body of knowledge produced by observation and experiment .
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What is Chemistry? (cont’d) • Memorization is a small part of any science, you need to know the definitions and common variables: you need to know: – Table 1.2 and the first 30 elements & symbols - Others will be added as we continue. Classification of Matter Macroscopic scale: Gas : No fixed volume or shape, conforms to the volume and shape of the container, is compressible. Liquid : Individual particles are confined to a given volume, liquid flows (no definite shape) and assumes the shape of its container up to the volume of the liquid, slightly compressible. Solid : Rigid with a definite shape, very slightly compressible. Classification of Matter Microscopic (molecular) scale: Gas : Particles are far apart, move at high speed, collide often. Liquid : Particles are in close contact, moving rapidly and sliding over one another. Solid : particles are packed close together, held tightly together by strong forces of attraction often in ordered arrangements.
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Types of Pure Substances Elements : only one kind of atom Examples: O 2 , He, S 8 Memorize these stable diatomics: H 2 , O 2 , N 2 and the Halogens (F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 , I 2 ) Compounds : Two or more elements Examples: NaCl, H 2 O, C 12 H 22 O 11 Compounds • Combination of elements in specific ratios. • Compounds have different properties than their elements: H 2 O vs. H 2 and O 2 Law of Constant (Definite) Composition Different samples of any pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportion by mass . Mixtures
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2009 for the course CHEM 121 taught by Professor Wyzlouzil during the Spring '07 term at Ohio State.

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Chem121-Chapter-1 - Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement R...

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