PNI AIDS2-22-09

PNI AIDS2-22-09 - PNI, AIDS, Arthritis PNI, AIDS, Arthritis...

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Unformatted text preview: PNI, AIDS, Arthritis PNI, AIDS, Arthritis What is the function of What is the function of the immune system? What is the difference between What is the difference between natural immunity and specific immunity? Natural Immunity Natural Immunity Granulocytes – – – Largest group of cells involved in natural immunity Phagocytic cells that engulf target pathogens Granulocytes include: Neutrophils Macrophages that release cytokines Natural killer cells http://newscenter.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understand – Involved in natural immunity – Recognize non­self material and lyse those cells Specific Immunity Specific Immunity B CELLS Humoral-mediated immunity Protect against bacteria Prevent viral re-infection T CELLS Cell-mediated immunity TC cells respond to specific antigens TH cells enhance the functioning of other white blood cells How can we assess How can we assess immunocompetence? What are some factors that influence What are some factors that influence immune system functioning? Stress and Immunity in Humans Stress and Immunity in Humans Different stressors create different demands on body – Evolution: Sudden stress – changes in immune system take place quickly Fight­or­flight reactions To repair wounds To prevent infections – Being called on in class (short­term stressor) Produces the increases in natural killer cells and large granular lymphocytes Decreases some measures of specific immunity Examples of Stress Studies Examples of Stress Studies Hurricane Andrew – Changes in immune responses, primarily due to sleep problems – Especially likely to change immune functioning – Writing about traumas in which participants blamed themselves increased shame Stress involving threats to self Anticipatory stress compromises immune functions Long Term Stress Long Term Stress Three Mile Island nuclear accident – Lower levels of saliva IgA – Lower percentages of B cells, total T cells, and TH cells – Lower levels of natural killer cells – High antibody titres to several viruses How is negative affect associated How is negative affect associated with immune functioning? Stress and Interpersonal Relationships Stress and Interpersonal Relationships Adverse changes in immunity are associated with – Bereavement (especially those who have become depressed) – Loneliness – Martial disruption and conflict (including short­term conflicts) – Providing care for a friend or family member with a long­term illness Coping Resources Coping Resources Optimism and active coping strategies are protective Self­Efficacy/Personal Control are associated with less immunocompromise under stress – Seger et al, 1998, study of law students – Optimistic students – less stress related distress What are some coping resources What are some coping resources in immunity? What are some types of What are some types of interventions to improve immune functioning? What is AIDS? What is AIDS? What is HIV? AIDS AIDS AIDS – Progressive impairment of the immune system by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – A diagnosis of AIDS is based on the presence of one or more specific opportunistic infections Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – Virus that is implicated in development of AIDS Physiology Physiology Viral agent is a retrovirus – Attacks immune system, especially the helper T cells and macrophages – Transmitted by exchange of cell­containing bodily fluids, such as semen and blood – Highly variable time between contracting virus and developing AIDS symptoms AIDS: AIDS: The United States How HIV infection progresses – Mild early symptoms: Swollen glands, flu­like symptoms – 3 to 6 weeks: Infection abates, asymptomatic period – Amount of virus gradually rises: Immune system compromised – Opportunistic infections, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, occur – Common symptom for women: Gynecologic infection AIDS: AIDS: A Brief History First appearance is unknown – Central Africa – Perhaps in the early 1970s – Spread rapidly through heterosexual population High rate of extramarital sex Low rate of condom use High rate of gonorrhea Medical clinics reused needles to promote vaccinations AIDS: AIDS: A Brief History First diagnosed case 1981 End of 2003: Living with HIV/AIDS – 40 million people worldwide 37 million adults 2.5 million children younger than 15 years Projection for 2020 – 26.6 million live in Sub­Saharan Africa (66%) – 65 million deaths from AIDS – Thus, today AIDS is still in early stages of the epidemic How is AIDS transmitted? How is AIDS transmitted? Transmission in the US Transmission in the US Drug users Homosexual men – Needle sharing exchanges fluids – Anal­receptive sex (exchange of semen) – Vaginal intercourse, with women more at risk than men AIDS growing fastest among women Heterosexual population Other Risks – Low­income Blacks, Hispanics, other minorities are increasingly at risk How is AIDS prevented? How is AIDS prevented? How do people respond to the How do people respond to the diagnosis of AIDS? – (10 min. ­ ?stop 5 min.) – (15 min. – stop 10:10) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSzEmmOba http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSzEmmOb http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mfq­Ip7kEkM How is AIDS treated? How is AIDS treated? How do people cope with AIDS? How do people cope with AIDS? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mal­Gws9oZ Psychosocial Impact of HIV Infection Psychosocial Impact of HIV Infection Women and HIV – Lives are often chaotic and unstable – Getting food and shelter for families often more salient than HIV status – Depression more likely among those With little social support With avoidant coping strategies With more severe HIV symptoms Psychosocial Factors that Affect the Psychosocial Factors that Affect the Course of AIDS HIV­infected gay men – Rapid course of disease for those with more stress – Slower course of disease with more social support – Correlated with decline in helper T cells Negative beliefs about self Writing interventions promoting optimistic thinking about the future – Led to greater reported adherence to medication – Less distress from side effects Arthritis Arthritis Autoimmunity: A condition in which the body produces an immune response against its own tissue constituents – Most prevalent autoimmune disorder: ARTHRITIS – Arthritis means “inflammation of a joint” – Rheumatoid, osteoarthritis, gout Three major forms of arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Crippling form of arthritis believed to result from an autoimmune process Primarily affects – Usually attacking small joints of hands, feet, wrists, knees, ankles, and neck – 40­60 age group – Women Main complications Stress may play a role – Pain, limitations in activities, need to be dependent on others Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Form of arthritis that results when the articular cartilage (smooth lining of a joint) begins to crack or wear away because of overuse of a particular joint – – – May also result from injury or other causes Usually affects weight­bearing joints Common among athletes and the elderly Treatment – Keeping weight down, exercise, aspirin Arthritis: Arthritis: Gout A form of arthritis produced by a buildup of uric acid in the body – Uric acid build up produces crystals that become lodged in the joints – Most commonly affected area ­ big toe Blood supply cannot carry away crystals Treatment NO ASPIRIN! – Avoid alcohol and certain foods; maintain proper weight, exercise, fluid intake; no aspirin since it slows uric acid removal – Untreated, gout can be deadly ...
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