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Unformatted text preview: Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery LOUISE M. BURKE, 1 * BENTE KIENS 2 and JOHN L. IVY 3 1 Department of Sports Nutrition, Australian Institute of Sport, PO Box 176, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia, 2 Department of Human Physiology, Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Institute of Exercise and Sports Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100, Copenhagen , Denmark and 3 Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78747, USA Accepted 7 August 2003 An important goal of the athletes everyday diet is to provide the muscle with substrates to fuel the training programme that will achieve optimal adaptation for performance enhancements. In reviewing the scientific literature on post-exercise glycogen storage since 1991, the following guidelines for the training diet are proposed. Athletes should aim to achieve carbohydrate intakes to meet the fuel requirements of their training programme and to optimize restoration of muscle glycogen stores between workouts. General recommendations can be provided, preferably in terms of grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of the athletes body mass, but should be fine-tuned with individual consideration of total energy needs, specific training needs and feedback from training performance. It is valuable to choose nutrient-rich carbohydrate foods and to add other foods to recovery meals and snacks to provide a good source of protein and other nutrients. These nutrients may assist in other recovery processes and, in the case of protein, may promote additional glycogen recovery when carbohydrate intake is suboptimal or when frequent snacking is not possible. When the period between exercise sessions is 5 8 h, the athlete should begin carbohydrate intake as soon as practical after the first workout to maximize the effective recovery time between sessions. There may be some advantages in meeting carbohydrate intake targets as a series of snacks during the early recovery phase, but during longer recovery periods (24 h) the athlete should organize the pattern and timing of carbohydrate-rich meals and snacks according to what is practical and comfortable for their individual situation. Carbohydrate-rich foods with a moderate to high glycaemic index provide a readily available source of carbohydrate for muscle glycogen synthesis, and should be the major carbohydrate choices in recovery meals. Although there is new interest in the recovery of intramuscular triglyceride stores between training sessions, there is no evidence that diets which are high in fat and restricted in carbohydrate enhance training. Keywords : carbohydrate, energy intake, glycaemic index, glycogen, performance. Introduction An important goal of the athletes everyday diet is to provide the muscle with substrates to fuel the training programme that will achieve optimal adaptation and performance enhancements. Body fat and carbohydrate stores provide the major sources of exercise fuel; whereas fat sources (plasma free fatty acids derived from adipose...
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