Unformatted text preview: Classical Mythology Classical Mythology
Monday, June 23 What is Mythology? What is Mythology? Muthos (Greek) = utterance Logos (Greek) = reason, explanation, word How does myth differ from folktales, fairy tales, fables, and other similar genres? The orality of myth Varied Extemporaneous Modern “Myths”? Modern “Myths”? Urban legends Bermuda Triangle Atlantis Basic Elements of Myth Basic Elements of Myth Tradition Divinities Narrative Conventional/Social Hero/Exaggeration Etiology Symbolic Entertainment Nonessential Elements of Myth Nonessential Elements of Myth Time Literacy Truth Myth reveals . . . Myth reveals . . . The values, beliefs, anxieties, etc. of the culture that produces it Worldview Goals and the dangers involved in achieving them Struggles with the limits of mortality Naturalism Naturalism Existence governed by necessity, not choice If the gods exist, they are identical to necessity Anything made up is an illusion or a lie Timeline Timeline (Note that dates are approximate) 3000 Bronze Age 2000 Minoan Period 1600 Mycenaean Period 1250 Trojan War 1100 Dark Age 800 Archaic Period 750 Homer (Iliad/Odyssey) 700 Hesiod (Theogony) 500 Classical Period (Euripides) 4317 AD Ovid (Roman; Metamorphoses) Minoan Civilization Minoan Civilization NonGreek civilization on the island of Crete Characterized by great palaces, pottery, and commerce Female deity worship Bull dancing Inverted column Minoans continued Minoans continued No defensive walls suggest domination of the seas (i.e. strong navy) Some Terms Some Terms Labrys: doubleheaded axe Labyrinthos: place of the double axe Chthonic: “from the earth”, refers to fertility deities, primarily females Pasiphae and the Pasiphae and the Bull Falls in love with a bull Commissions a wooden heifer from Daedalus, in order to seduce said bull The result = the Minotaur Theseus and the Theseus and the Minotaur Minotaur kept in labyrinth King Minos exacts tribute from Athens for the murder of his son The tribute demanded is 7 men and 7 women to feed the minotaur Theseus, son of Aegeus, asks to go as part of the tribute Theseus Theseus The Minoan princess, Ariadne, falls in love with Theseus and helps him escape the labyrinth The run away together, but Theseus dumps her on a beach Theseus continued Theseus continued Ariadne’s curse Aegeus’ death Mycenaean Age Mycenaean Age Bronze Age Characterized by military prowess Fortified hilltop citadels Time of the Trojan War Powerful kings Greece, a loose confederation of city states that shared societal and cultural similarities Linear B Linear B Early form of Greek Characters borrowed from Minoan Linear A Deciphered between 1951 and 1953 by Michael Ventris Heinrich Schliemann Heinrich Schliemann Wealthy business man with a romantic fascination for ancient Greek mythology, particularly Homer Began to dig in Hisarlik, Turkey (Asia Minor) in 1870 and uncovered Troy Sophie Schliemann Sophie Schliemann wearing the Trojan treasure. The Dark Age The Dark Age “Dorian invasion” Scanty archeological record No written evidence Small, scattered communities Foundations for the polis begin to form Colonies begin to be established across seas Archaic Period Archaic Period Archē = beginning Small agricultural tribes begin to grow into larger political units The polis develops The poleis usually ruled by oligarchy Foundations of democracy emerge Increasing colonization Borrow Phoenician alphabet Iliad and Odyssey are written down Phoenician and Greek Alphabets Phoenician and Greek Alphabets The Olympians The Olympians Zeus Hera Poseidon Aphrodite Athena Hephaistos Demeter Hermes Ares Apollo Artemis Dionysus Hades Hestia Terms to review Terms to review Anthropomorphism Naturalism Labyrs Labyrinth Chthonic polis For tomorrow For tomorrow
Read Hesiod’s Theogony ...
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