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Homer's Illiad 3 - Death of Death of Hector Wednesday July...

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Unformatted text preview: Death of Death of Hector Wednesday, July 2 Shield of Achilles Shield of Achilles Hephaestus owes Thetis a favor Metal inlays characteristic of Mycenaean Age “Terrifying to behold” (Cf. Athena’s aegis) Irony of the shield – like the walls of Troy Fashioning the Shield Fashioning the Shield Ekphrasis Ekphrasis Ekphrasis: a literary description of a work of art Shield of Achilles – teaching audience how to respond to the epic Limits World of man cast within the greater cosmos ­­ heavens, stars, sun, moon How do you maintain balance? Ekphrasis continued Ekphrasis continued “Armor that any man in the world of men will marvel at through all the years to come.” (18.544­5) Achilles as ekphrasis (18.227 ff.) “Show yourself to the Trojans. Struck with fear at the sight of you . . . From Achilles’ head the blaze shot up the sky.” Peacetime scenes contrast with the On the Shield On the Shield Happy Stuff brutality of war Emphasis on joy, but antitheses within the shield – Dancing – Wedding – Harvest – Feasting On the Shield On the Shield Sad Stuff Two men struggling over blood­price (18.581 ff.) Cities at war Slaughter of cattle Shield of Achilles Shield of Achilles Iliad 19 Iliad Regarding the shield: “A tremor ran through all the Myrmidon ranks – none dared to look straight at the glare, each fighter shrank away. Not Achilles. The more he gazed, the deeper his anger went, his eyes flashing under his eyelids, fierce as fire – exulting, holding the god’s shining gifts in his hands.” (19.17 ff.) Why Achilles can gaze upon it Iliad 19 continued Iliad Briseis mourns Patroclus (19.333 ff.) Achilles’ horse prophesies his death (19.478 ff.) Achilles reconciles with Agamemnon (19.175 ff.) Achilles’ attention shifts from the Greeks back to the Trojans, from Agamemnon to Hector Some readings of Iliad 19 Some readings of “Social reintegration”? Mortal godhood – Rebirth – Acceptance of gifts Achilles and revenge Book 21 – Achilles’ Excess Book 21 – Achilles’ Excess Kills Priam’s son, Lycaon, in spite of his pleas Achilles crams the river with corpses Fights the River Scamander Sacrifices twelve Trojan boys for Patroclus Zeus and suppliants Note beginning of Book 22 – gets into it with Apollo Book 22 Book 22 Trojans have withdrawn inside the walls Priam beseeches Hector Hecuba beseeches Hector (22.93 ff.) – “Rescue us” – “Pity me” ­­ Priam’s fate (22.70 ff.) Hector Deliberates Hector Deliberates His priorities What is he concerned about? The alternative – 22.132 ff. “I could promise to give back Helen and all her treasures . . . divide the rest with all the Argives.” Simile of lovers 22.151 Book 22 continued Book 22 continued Zeus’ concern for Hector (cf. Sarpedon) – 22.201 ff. Athena rejoins battle Hector tries to strike a bargain 22.301 Hector begs Achilles 22.398 Deiphobus Mutilation of Hector’s body Mutilation of Hector’s body All the Greeks stab Hector’s corpse with their swords Achilles kills Hector and lashes his body behind his chariot and drags it around Apollo protects the body from corruption Achilles in Iliad 24 Achilles in Still raging (24.26) Not interested in food or love making (24.155 ff.) Moody: “Don’t tempt my wrath, not now!” (24.656) In the end Achilles finally eats and sleeps with Briseis. Fugitive­Murderer Simile Fugitive­Murderer Simile Awesome – as when the grip of madness seizes one who murders a man in his own fatherland and flees abroad to foreign shores, to a wealthy, noble host, and a sense of marvel runs through all who see him – so Achilles marveled, beholding majestic Priam. (24.563­67) Achilles Son of Peleus Achilles Son of Peleus Priam : murderer, foreigner; Achilles : host The function of contrasts Peleus, Achilles’ father, a host to exiles Priam: “Remember your own father.” (24.570) Odysseus: “You hold in check that proud, fiery spirit of yours . . . That was your aged father’s parting advice.” (9.309 ff.) Phoenix: “Peleus loved me as a father loves a son. (9.583) Nestor (11.935­7) Ring Composition Ring Composition Begins with Chryses attempt to ransom Chryseis Thetis’ intervention leads to destruction Reconciliation between Apollo and the Achaeans Ends with Priam successfully ransoming Hector Thetis’ intervention leads to a resolution Reconciliation between Priam and Achilles Niobe story Achilles speech to Priam Ring­form Structure in Ring­form Structure in Speeches A – Hector B ­­ Let’s eat C ­­ Niobe ate D ­­ Story of Niobe C ­­ Niobe ate B ­­ Let’s eat A – Hector Note ABCDCBA structure After the Iliad . . . After the Agamemnon returns home with his new Agamemnon returns home with his new concubine, Cassandra, only to be murdered by his wife, Clytemnestra. Cassandra is killed, as well. Achilles meets Achilles meets his death when Paris, with the help of Apollo, shoots him in the heel, the only vulnerable spot on his body. Just as he Just as he feared, Priam dies an inglorious death at the hands of Neoptolemus, Achilles’ son. Before his death he watches the murder of his son, Polites. Following the Following the death of Achilles, Ajax and Odysseus quarrel over Achilles’ armor. When it is awarded to Odysseus, Ajax goes mad and kills a bunch of cows and then himself. After the defeat of Troy, After the defeat of Troy, Andromache is taken captive by Achilles’ son, Neoptolemus. Astyanax, the son she shares with Hector is thrown from the walls of Troy. After the war Helen After the war Helen marries Deiphobus, who is killed by Menelaus. Helen returns to Sparta with Menelaus. Some say she never went to Troy at all and was in Egypt the entire time. Paris was killed by one Paris was killed by one of the poisoned arrows of Philoctetes. Aeneas flees Troy Aeneas flees Troy with his father on his back and son in tow, losing his wife on his way out of Troy. After a long journey, he founds what will become Rome. It takes Odysseus ten It takes Odysseus ten years to return home to his wife, Penelope, at which time he finds his home overrun with suitors. We’ll read about his adventures next week. ...
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