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Unformatted text preview: Virgil’s Aeneid Virgil’s Monday, July 21 Roman and Greek names Roman and Greek names Hera = Juno Poseidon = Neptune Aphrodite = Venus Zeus = Jupiter Ares = Mars Roman and Greek Names Roman and Greek Names continued Athena = Minerva/Pallas Apollo = Apollo/Phoebus Hermes = Mercury Odysseus = Ulysses Virgil’s Aeneid Virgil’s Roman work Composed by Virgil in between 29 and 19 BC during Augustus’ reign Post civil war Political propaganda? Criticism? From Homer to Virgil From Homer to Virgil Developments in literature Writing Tragedy Rhetoric refined Beginning/Proem Beginning/Proem “I sing of arms and a man.” Journey from Troy to Italy (Odyssey) Juno’s wrath (Iliad) Carried his household gods (penates) Invocation to the Muse Arms = Iliad (Aeneid 712) Man = Odyssey (Aeneid 16) Literary Reception Literary Reception The literary interpretation of one work of literature in another Note the many, many ways in which Virgil borrows from Homer Structure of Aeneid 16 Structure of Aeneid 16 Storm following the Trojan stay in Sicily Dido receives the Trojans at Carthage (Book 1) Aeneas’ narrative Dido and Aeneas’ love affair (Book 4) Sack of Troy (Book 2) Wanderings (Book 3) Aeneas Aeneas Trojan son of Aphrodite and Anchises Exile and leader of exiles from Troy Son = Ascanius/Iulus/Ilis Wife = Creusa Father = Anchises Book 1 – some Homeric elements Book 1 – some Homeric elements Again we begin in medias res Action in response to a prophecy Aeolus Venus intervenes on Aeneas’ behalf, speak to Zeus (cf. Thetis) Punic/Carthaginian Wars Aeneas, Odysseus, and kleos Aeneas, Odysseus, and In the midst of a storm: “O, three and four times blessed were those who died before their father’s eyes beneath the walls of Troy. Strongest of all Danaans, o Diomedes, why did your right hand not spill my lifeblood, why did I not fall upon Ilian fields . . . !” (1.133 ff.) Compare to Book 2 Compare to Book 2 “My only thought: how fine a thing it is to die in arms” (2.432) Pius Aeneas Pius Pietas (>Eng. piety, pious) = great Roman virtue, a threefold sense of duty to Achilles = hero of might (bia) Odysseus = hero of cunning (metis) Aeneas = hero of pietas Family Gods Country (patria) A New Kind of Nostos A New Kind of Aeneas isn’t trying to get home; he’s trying to find a new place to call home Not that concerned with glory More concerned about the legacy he’s to leave his son Zeus’ Prophecy Zeus’ Prophecy Aeneas will wage war in Italy and will rule as King of Latium for three years Ascanius will found Alba Longa 300 years later a priestess of Mars will give birth to twins, Romulus and Remus They will be suckled by a shewolf Romulus will defeat Remus and Rome will be named for him Julius Caesar Venus Venus Appears to Aeneas disguised as a maiden He mistakes her for Artemis/Diana (Apollo’s sister) (cf.Nausicaa) When she reveals who she is, Aeneas becomes angry: “Why do you mock your son – so often and so cruelly – with these lying apparitions?” (1.581 ff.) She wraps in him in a cloud (cf. Paris) Disguises and Wrappings Disguises and Wrappings Venus in disguise Aeneas and Achates wrapped in a cloud – do they know they are or does the cloud represent something else? Trojan Horse Dido’s Background Dido’s Background Her husband, Sychaeus, is killed by her brother, Pygmalion Sychaeus comes to her in a dream and shows her hidden treasure She flees and lands in Carthage Buys as much land as an oxhide can cover Juno’s Temple Juno’s Temple Example of ekphrasis: literary description of a work of art “He sees the wars of Troy set in order.” (1.647) (cf. Demodocus’ song) To Achates: “Forget your fears; this fame will bring you some deliverance.” (1.6512) Juno’s Temple continued Juno’s Temple continued However, the scenes are not described “in order”, so what is Aeneas seeing? Dido Dido Cf. Phaeacians, Nausicaa, Calypso, and Circe Cupid and Ascanius Cupid and Ascanius Venus has Cupid, in the form of Ascanius, inflame Dido with love for Aeneas How else could you read this? Book 2 – the Fall of Troy Book 2 – the Fall of Troy Trojan Horse – the lie, built as An offering to Minerva/Athena for the stolen Palladium Too large to fit though Troy’s gates “Deadly gift” (2.44) Laocoon Laocoon Laocoon: “I fear the Greeks, even when they bring gifts.” (2.70) He and his two sons are devoured by a sea monster Sinon’s Lies Sinon’s Lies
Alludes to Iphigenia Apollo/Phoebus’ oracle: “By blood and by the slaying of a virgin, Grecians, you stilled the winds when you first came to Troy; by blood seek out your homeward way. The only offering that is suitable: an Argive life.” (2.164 ff.) Trojan Horse continued Trojan Horse continued “Four times it stalled before the gateway, at the very threshhold; four times the arms clashed loud inside its belly.” (2.33537) Cassandra’s gift and curse Virgil’s Aeneid Virgil’s Monday, July 21 The Attack The Attack
“It was the hour when for troubled morals rest – sweetest gift of the gods that glides to men – has just begun.” Aeneas and Pietas Aeneas and Aeneas must be reminded repeatedly to stop fighting and see to his duties of pietas 1) Hector’s shade commands Aeneas to take flight with the penates (household gods) and seek a new home BUT Aeneas doesn’t obey Aeneas and Pietas continued Aeneas and
Aeneas deliberates killing Helen: “For there is no memorable name in punishing a woman and no gain of honor in such victory, yet I shall have my praise for blotting out a thing of evil, for my punishing of one who merits penalties; and it will be a joy to fill my soul with vengeful fire, to satisfy the ashes of my people.” (2.785 ff.) Aeneas and Pietas continued Aeneas and 2) BUT Venus must remind him to go find his father, wife, and son and stop fighting (2.805) (cf. Hector’s shade) “I shall tear away each cloud that cloaks your eyes and clogs your human seeing.” (2.817) (cf. Athena and Diomedes) Aeneas and Pietas continued Aeneas and 3) Creusa reminds Aeneas to protect his house and think of his son (2.911 ff.) AND finally Aeneas assumes his rightful duties 4) When Aeneas goes back to find Creusa he wants to fight again Creusa’s shade will redirect Aeneas to his future Aeneas and Pietas continued Aeneas and “I, who just before could not be stirred by any weapons cast at me or by crowds of Greeks in charging columns, now am terrified by all the breezes, startled by every sound, in fear for son and father.” (2.980 ff.) Creusa Creusa Aeneas loses track of her and she dies at somepoint during their escape “Let my wife Creusa follow at a distance.” (2.9601) Aeneas tries to embrace her shade three times (cf. Odysseus in the underworld) Troy aflame = like an underworld Gods in the Aeneid Gods in the Deceptive and harmful Penates entrusted to Aeneas “Defeated gods” (2.438) “For all the gods on whom this kingdom stood have quit our shrines and altars, gone away.” (2.474) “But oh, it is not right for anyone to trust reluctant gods!” (2.54041) Highlights of Book 2 Highlights of Book 2 Priam killed by Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus), Achilles’ son Aeneas encounters Helen (daughter of Tyndareos) Omen over Ascanius/Iulus’ head and the shooting star Aeneas carries Anchises out of Troy on his shoulders ...
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