Tragedy - Greek Greek Tragedy Monday, July 28...

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Unformatted text preview: Greek Greek Tragedy Monday, July 28 Aristophanes’ Speech Aristophanes’ Speech From Plato’s Symposium – speeches on Love (Eros) Male­male love Aristophanes = comic playwright Originally three sexes: – All male – All female – Male/female Diotima’s Speech Diotima’s Speech Story of the birth of Love – Poros: Resource – Penia: Poverty Love is . . . Love is . . . The attendant to Aphrodite Poor and rough Between mortal and immortal Plotting, bold, strong A hunter A philosopher Greek Tragedy Greek Tragedy Tragedy > tragōdia: “goat song” Satyrs: half­man, half­goat figures Satyr play: a lighter work, usually a parody of a myth Evolved from dithyramb: lyric poetry, the invention of which is attributed to Arion (remember the guy who was rescued by a dolphin) Theatre > theatron > theathsai = “to view as spectators” Greek playwrights, whose works we have: Euripides, Sophocles, Aeschylus Dionysus Dionysus Dionysus: god of wine, revelry, ecstasy Son of Zeus and Semele Cult of Dionysus introduced by Cleisthenes in 6th century The Great Dionysia The Great Dionysia Annual festival held in the spring to honor the god, Dionysus City Dionysia continued City Dionysia continued Three playwrights present four plays each (trilogy + satyr play) over three days 531 BC Thespis is said to have won the first competition, thus our word, “thespian” Everything is paid for by the citizens Choregos: wealthy citizen who funds the play – could challenge another Athenian citizen to exchange property with him – highly egalitarian institution The Birth of Tragedy The Birth of Tragedy Democratic polis Democratic Polis continued Democratic Polis continued Athens was populated with citizens’ different and changing views, and democratic ideology, which itself contained contradictions and was hard to apply with consistency Tragedy reflects this plurality of voices Tragedy negotiating and considering different points of view (cf. the Assembly) The Issues The Issues Oikos vs. Polis Democracy vs. Tyranny Male vs. Female Law of gods vs. Law of man Greek vs. Barbarian Aristotle on Tragedy Aristotle on Tragedy His work, the Poetics Katharsis: cleansing Hamartia: fatal error (hamartanō = to miss the mark in archery) Fear and pity in the audience Aristotle continued Aristotle continued Desis: complication Lusis: denouement Anagnorisis: recognition Peripeteia: reversal (of fortune) – can go from bad to good or good to bad (not necesssarily sad, but Aristotle thought the latter was better because it incited The Players The Players All male Originally two, eventually a third added Played multiple roles The Chorus The Chorus Chorus: group of citizens, non­ professional singers They express the fears, hopes, questions, and judgments of the spectators Coryphaios: leader – Strophe – Antistrophe – Epode The Theatre The Theatre Orchestra: the performance space Skene: the building behind the stage Paradoi: the side entrances Theatron: the seating area Devices of Tragedy Devices of Tragedy Masks used to Ekkyklema: low trolley pushed out to display something (e.g. dead body) Deus ex machina: “god from the machine” – A crane that was used to lower an intervening god – Has come to mean – Identify and differentiate between characters – Vocal augmentation Tragedies Tragedies Aeschylus The Persians Seven Against Thebes The Suppliants Oresteia (trilogy) Prometheus Bound Sophocles Ajax Oedipus the King Antigone Oedipus at Colonus Electra The Trachiniae Philoctetes Euripides Euripides The Cyclops (438 B.C.) Alcestis (438 B.C.) Medea (431 B.C.) The Heracleidae (ca. 428 B.C.) Hippolytus (428 B.C.) Andromanche (ca. 427 B.C.) Hecuba (425 B.C.) The Suppliants (421 B.C.) Heracles (ca. 422 B.C.) Ion (ca. 417 B.C.) The Trojan Women (415 B.C.) Electra (413 B.C.) Iphigenia in Tauris (ca. 413 B.C.) Helena (412 B.C.) The Phoenician Women (ca. 410 B.C.) Orestes (408 B.C.) The Bacchae (405 B.C.) Iphigenia in Aulis (405 B.C From Epic to Tragedy From Epic to Tragedy 5th century BC – height of Greek tragedy 1st century BC – Virgil composes the Aeneid Aeneid 4 as Tragedy Aeneid Dido, a woman, as a central figure, agent Ambiguity Marcellus Marcellus Public and Private ...
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