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BUGS ESSAY QUESTIONS

BUGS ESSAY QUESTIONS - BUGS ESSAY QUESTIONS 1 Outline the...

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BUGS ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. Outline the basic principles behind sexual selection. Describe why males are so commonly in competition over females and why females are so commonly choosy. One form of mating behavior that has evolved in insects is gift giving. Describe the mating system of one insect in which gift giving is important. What role does gift giving play in insect mating? Who gives the gift (male or female?) and who receives it? Explain gift giving in light of what you know about sexual selection. - Sexual Selection- A type of natural selection where members of the sexes acquire distinct forms either because the members of one sex choose mates with particular features or because in the competition for mates among the members of one sex only those with certain traits succeed. - Males and females have different goals for mating. o Males are in intense competition with each other to fertilize a limited number of extremely choosy receptive females. This leads to intense competition among males and the outcome is a remarkable diversity of mating strategies, tactics, and morphologies. o The optimal strategy for males is to fertilize the maximum number of eggs. The optimal strategy for females is to fertilize their eggs with the “best” sperm. As a result, females are very choosy. - Gift giving- Mating is preceded by the presentation of an edible gift from male to female. Females are choosy based on the quality of the gift. o Male reproductive success is correlated with the size of the gift and the duration of feeding by the female. o Females generally re-mate when presented with a small gift. o Males are under strong sexual selection to procure large gifts. - Scorpion Flies- Scorpion flies consume living and dead insects. Males collect dead insects that they present to females during mating. The larger the gift, the longer the mating, and the more sperm are transferred. Females offered short gifts generally re-mate afterwards.
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2. Compare and contrast holometabolous and hemimetabolous development. Name three orders that are holometabolous and three orders that are hemimetabolous. When in the fossil record did holometabolous development (metamorphosis) appear? Why is metamorphosis considered a "major adaptation" in insects?
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