Prelim 2 Review Guide

Prelim 2 Review Guide -...

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Prelim #2 covers from Deuterostomes (chp 18, pp 384-395), Genetics (chps 8 & 9) and Evolution up through Oct 30 th Refer to the Lecture Notes & ppt slides (use text book the review Introductory Chapter Essays & as a reference book). Notes and ppt slides are available on Blackboard. Exam Coverage Includes the following… I . READ ALL the assigned Introductory Chapter Essays You WILL be given one intro essay question/chapter. II. Review Questions organized by lecture topic (chp) Chp 18 lecture topics ~ 1. Taxonomic groups covered on this exam include [know major traits and phylogenetic relationships among the following]~ Animalia True Tissues (derived trait) Bilateral Symmetry (derived trait) Deuterostomes Echinodermata Chordata Tunicates and Lancets Craniates Hagfish Vertebrates Lampreys Jawed Vertebrates (derived trait) Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Ray-finned Fishes Fleshy-finned Fishes Coelacanths Internal Nostrils (derived trait) Lungfishes Tetrapoda Tetrapoda (four limbs) Amphibia (frogs, salamanders, caecilians) Amniota (lay shelled eggs) 1
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Mammalia (hair) Reptilia (scaly skin, many lay eggs) Chelonia (turtles) Lepidosauria (lizards and snakes) Archosauria (dinosaurs etc.) Crocodylia (crocs) Aves (birds) a. How do Lampreys differ from other fish? - Lampreys are the oldest living lineage of vertebrates. They lack hinged jaws and paired fins. They are suspension feeders. b. Can Chondrichthyes “breath” if they don’t swim? Why or why not? - Sharks and rays. They have a flexible skeleton made of cartilage. They must keep moving or rest in a current so that water moves over their gills and they can breathe. c. Why is an operculum important to Osteichthyes? - An operculum is an organ that helps move water over gills. This allows this group to respire without constantly moving about. d. What are key traits of Aves and what do they share with other reptiles? - Aves are feathered reptiles with adaptations for flight. Aves are endothermic with wings, feathers, and hollow bones which are adaptations for flight. - Birds share nest building, acoustic communication among parents and young, and complex paternal care with reptiles. 2. Make sure you remember analogy versus homology and be able to apply the use of these words: - Homology - Similarities due to shared ancestry (wings of wrens and hawks). - Analogy- Similarity due to convergence. (white fur of cats and bears) 3. Know the key characteristics of the above groups [e.g. what makes a tetrapod a tetrapod, what & who is an amniote? What do chordates share in common? Etc…] - Tertrapods- Jawed vertebrates with two pairs of limbs that can support their weight on land. These were the first vertebrates on land. Split into amphibians and amniotes. Air- breathing relatives of early lung fishes developed skeleton- reinforced appendages and gave rise to the first tetrapods. - Amniotes- Mammals and reptiles. They lay shelled eggs (have an amniotic egg) where
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2009 for the course BIO G 109 taught by Professor Winkler,d. during the Fall '06 term at Cornell.

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Prelim 2 Review Guide -...

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