Sample Essay Questions 1. Explain the relationships among genes, alleles, chromosomes, genotypes, and phenotypes allele-alternative versions of a gene. gene- A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism. chromosome-Rod-like structure in the nucleus of a cell that forms during mitosis; composed of DNA and protein; chromosomes contain the genes responsible for heredity. genotype-Genetic makeup (PP, Pp, pp) phenotype-expressed or physical traits (purple vs. white) 2. Define allopatric speciation and use the Galapagos finches to illustrate this concept-Allopatric speciation is the most common speciation method. It is the separation of a population, with its gene pool, from other populations of the same species. The changes in allele frequencies caused by natural selection, genetic drift, and mutations . It is unaffected by gene flow from other populations because they can’t get
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