Textbook Chapter Review Questions CHAPTER 1 1. Which of the following levels of biological organization includes all others in the list?: cell, molecule, organ, tissue?-Organ 2. Explain how the photosynthesis of plants functions in both the cycling of chemical nutrients and the flow of energy in an ecosystem?-Photosynthesis uses light to convert CO2 and H20 to energy-rich food, making it the pathway by which both chemical nutrients and energy become available to most organisms. 3. Explain why cells are considered the basic unit of life?-They are the lowest level in the hierarchy of biological organization at which the producers of life emerge. 4. What is the chemical basis for all of life’s kinship?-DNA as the genetic material. 5. To which of the three domains of life do we belong?-Eukarya 6. How does natural selection enable a population of organisms to adapt to its environment?-On average, those individuals with heritable traits best suited to the local environment produce the greatest number of offspring that survive and reproduce. This increases the frequency of those traits in the population. 7. What is the difference between discovery science and hypothesis-based science?-In discovery science, scientists observe and describe objects and phenomena; in hypothesis-based science, they propose hypotheses, make deductions, and test predictions. 8. Why is it difficult to draw a conclusion from an experiment that is not controlled?-Without a control, you don’t know if the experiment outcome is due to the variable you are trying to test or to some other variable. CHAPTER 15 1. How long did prokaryotes inhabit Earth before eukaryotes evolved?-1.3 billion years 2. Our forearms and a bat’s wings are…?-Homologous
3. A bat’s wings and a bee’s wings are…?- Analogous 4. To distinguish a particular clade of mammals within the larger clade that corresponds to class Mammalia, why is hair not a useful characteristic?-
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