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Chapter04rw-final

# Chapter04rw-final - 4 4.1 4.2 Aqueous Reactions and...

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77 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Visualizing Concepts 4.1 Analyze . Correlate the formula of the solute with the charged spheres in the diagrams. Plan . Determine the electrolyte properties of the solute and the relative number of cations, anions, or neutral molecules produced when the solute dissolves. Solve . Li 2 SO 4 is a strong electrolyte, a soluble ionic solid that dissociates into separate Li + and SO 4 2– when it dissolves in water. There are twice as many Li + cations as SO 4 2 – anions. Diagram (c) represents the aqueous solution of a 2:1 electrolyte. 4.2 Although CH 3 OH and HCl are both molecular compounds, HCl is an acid and strong electrolyte. Strong electrolytes exist in solution almost completely as ions, so an aqueous HCl solution conducts electricity. CH 3 OH is a nonelectrolyte that exists as neutral molecules in aqueous solution. Since there are no charge carriers, aqueous solutions of nonelectrolytes such as CH 3 OH do not conduct electricity. 4.3 Analyze/Plan . Correlate the neutral molecules, cations, and anions in the diagrams with the definitions of strong, weak, and nonelectrolytes. Solve . (a) AX is a nonelectrolyte, because no ions form when the molecules dissolve. (b) AY is a weak electrolyte because a few molecules ionize when they dissolve, but most do not. (c) AZ is a strong electrolyte because all molecules break up into ions when they dissolve. 4.4 The brightness of the bulb in Figure 4.2 is related to the number of ions per unit volume of solution. If 0.1 M HC 2 H 3 O 2 has about the same brightness of 0.001 M HBr, the two solutions have about the same number of ions. Since 0.1 M HC 2 H 3 O 2 has 100 times more solute than 0.001 M HBr, HBr must be dissociated to a much greater extent than HC 2 H 3 O 2 . HBr is one of the few molecular acids that is a strong electrolyte. HC 2 H 3 O 2 is a weak electrolyte; if it were a nonelectrolyte, the bulb in Figure 4.2 wouldn’t glow. 4.5 Analyze . From the names and/or formulas of 3 substances determine their electrolyte and solubilities properties. Plan . Determine whether the substance is molecular or ionic. If it is molecular, is it a weak acid or base and thus a weak electrolyte, or a nonelectrolyte? If it is ionic, is it soluble?

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4 Aqueous Reactions Solutions to Exercises 78 Solve . Glucose is a molecular compound that is neither a weak acid nor a weak base. It is a nonelectrolyte that dissolves to produce a nonconducting solution; it is solid C. NaOH is ionic; the anion is OH . According to Table 4.1, most hydroxides are insoluble, but NaOH is one of the soluble ones. NaOH is a strong electrolyte that dissolves to form a conducting solution; it is solid A. AgBr is ionic; the anion is Br . According to Table 4.1, most bromides are soluble, but AgBr is one of the insoluble ones; it is solid B.
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Chapter04rw-final - 4 4.1 4.2 Aqueous Reactions and...

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