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Chapter07rw-final - 7 7.1(a(b(c Periodic Properties of the...

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164 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements Visualizing Concepts 7.1 (a) The light bulb itself represents the nucleus of the atom. The brighter the bulb, the more nuclear charge the electron “sees.” A frosted glass lampshade between the bulb and our eyes reduces the brightness of the bulb. The shade is analogous to core electrons in the atom shielding outer electrons (our eyes) from the full nuclear charge (the bare light bulb). (b) Increasing the wattage of the light bulb mimics moving right along a row of the periodic table. The brighter bulb inside the same shade is analogous to having more protons in the nucleus while the core electron configuration doesn’t change. (c) Moving down a family, both the nuclear charge and the core electron configuration changes. To simulate the addition of core electrons farther from the nucleus, we would add larger frosted glass shades as well as increase the wattage of the bulb to show the increase in Z. The effect of the shade should dominate the increase in wattage, so that the brightness of the light decreases moving down a column. 7.2 A billiard ball is an imperfect model for an atom. The ball has a definite “hard” boundary, while an atom has no definite edge and can be reshaped by interactions with other atoms. That said, the billiard ball is a more appropriate analogy for the nonbonding radius of a fluorine atom. The ball’s radius is spherical, and not deformed by interaction (bonding) with a second ball. If we use the billiard ball to represent the bonding atomic radius of a fluorine atom, we overestimate the bonding atomic radius. When atoms bond, attractive interactions cause their electron clouds to penetrate each other, bringing the nuclei closer together than during a nonbonding (billiard ball) collision. 7.3 (a) The bonding atomic radius of A, r A , is d 1 /2. The distance d 2 is the sum of the bonding atomic radii of A and X, r A + r X . Since we know that r A = d 1 /2, d 2 = r X + d 1 /2, r X = d 2 – d 1 /2. (b) The length of the X-X bond is 2r X . 2r X = 2 (d 2 – d 1 /2) = 2d 2 – d 1 .
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7 Periodic Properties of the Elements Solutions to Exercises 165 7.4 Lines (a) and (b) coincide, but their directions are opposite. Line (a) goes from upper right to lower left, and line (b) from lower left to upper right. (c) From the diagram, we observe that the trends in bonding atomic radius (size) and ionization energy are opposite each other. As bonding atomic radius increases, ionization energy decreases, and vice versa. 7.5 A(g) A + (g) + e ionization energy of A A(g) + e A (g) electron affinity of A A(g) + A(g) A + (g) + A (g) ionization energy of A + electron affinity of A The energy change for the reaction is the ionization energy of A plus the electron affinity of A. This process is endothermic for both nonmetals and metals. Considering data for Cl and Na from Figures 7.12 and 7.14, the endothermic ionization energy term dominates the exothermic electron affinity term, even for Cl which has the most exothermic electron affinity listed.
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