Lecture October 14 - Lecture October 14: Sociological...

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Lecture October 14: Sociological theories of crime a. Problems with official poverty measure a. Out of touch with standards of living and consumption patterns: i. Childcare (working women with children under 6 increased from 15% to 58%) ii. transportation, other work related expenses b. Changes in household composition and family patterns c. Geographic variations in prices. d. Increases in medical costs and benefits e. Increase of payroll taxes (1-5 to 9-11%) f. Excludes non cash items such as food stamps, childcare assistance b. Vertical and horizontal occupational “ghettos” a. Horizontal segregation i. Rests on the notion that men and women are mentally, physically and emotionally suited for different sorts of jobs b. Vertical i. Ordering and exclusion of women from occupations by income prestige and power c. Dynamic Analysis: Is there a stable population who is poor? More recent estimates a. Nearly one-third of the population had at least one spell of poverty lasting 2 or more months during the 3-year period from 2001 to 2003. b. Chronic poverty was relatively uncommon, with 2.4 percent of the population living in poverty all 36 months of the period. d. Skill mismatch
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i. Lower demand for workers at the lower end of the economic spectrum ii. Declining wages iii. Fewer manufacturing jobs b. Explanations: i. Deindustrialization (from manufacturing to services) ii. Technological change (raises demand for some highly skilled workers e.g. computer related professions) e. Supply-side accounts a. Labor force expanded by more than 44 million from 1950 to 1970 (70% increase) i. Entrance of baby boom generation into the workforce. 1. Decrease on wages does not coincide with entrance and exit of this generation b. Entrance of women into the labor force i. But women’s wages rose at every decile and high occupational segregation. c.
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Lecture October 14 - Lecture October 14: Sociological...

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