Lecture October 30 - Lecture October 30: Era of mass...

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Lecture October 30: Era of mass incarceration and felon disenfranchisement The Prison Population o Past three decades number of inmates has increased by more than 500% o 2 million plus inmates, 2 million on probation and 775 thousand on parole There is almost 5 million people who are under the injustice system o US has the highest incarceration rates in the world Prison incarceration rates per 100,000 1925-2003 o More people there are the more crimes o Control overall population o Incarceration rate is relatively flat until the early 1970s, with a small peak in the 1970s because huge unemployment so a lot of social dislocation Increase in crime but not increase in incarceration rates Increase in incarceration rates and a decrease in the number of crime o 1973 corporate law changed. .. it was a factor but not too changing International comparisons o US in 2004, 714 inmates per 100,000 of the population o Larger than south Africa o Enormous differences of comparisons o What explains this sharp increase in incarceration rates 1970s on? Mixing war and crime Political aspect Sentencing law changed, minimum sentencing law
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Took away discretion from judges and gave all circumstances a minimum sentencing Causes of mass incarceration o Decline of crime since mid 1990s yet incarceration rates still climb? o Why? Punishment concerns By the 90s both political parties were tough on crime War on drugs Great public concern More cops on the street 100k in mid nineties o So they will see more crime Expansion of prison systems David garland from rehabilitation model to the punitive-expressive model of punishment o Don’t put people in jail just to punish them. .. put them in there to rehabilitate them o Not an idea of vengeance, not brutal idea Neither the % of people convicted who are sentenced to prison nor the average sentence length have increase much But o Likelihood that an arrest will lead to a conviction has increase as has the portion of their sentences served o Drug trafficking probability that an arrest will lead to conviction has gone from 52 to 80 percent from 1994 to 2002 Criminal justice system is more effective
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o The expected served sentences increase by 3 months to 2 years Which doesn’t sound like a lot but it actually is a lot Federal sentencing reform act (1984) Minimum sentencing guidelines. Mandatory minimum sentences and 3 strikes you are out Even three minor felonies (drug possession) 3 rd one you are in jail for life Hasn’t work too much Has created huge budget pressure for California o Spending same amount of jail as education Truth in sentencing laws (1994) require that some categories of felons serve 85% of their sentences irrespective of individual circumstances Change in the mix of felonies Drug trafficking went from 17% to 32% from 1988 to 2002 o Incentive to go after drug trafficking Cycle of punishment Larger population in parole and probation
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Lecture October 30 - Lecture October 30: Era of mass...

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